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Harry Truman!. Post WWII…What now?. What to do with 12 million soldiers that are being cut to 1.5 million men?....unemployment… What about the Ladies in the workforce? Race in the Workforce (EX or. 8802…) War economy to consumer economy. 21 Point program.

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post wwii what now
Post WWII…What now?
  • What to do with 12 million soldiers that are being cut to 1.5 million men?....unemployment…
  • What about the Ladies in the workforce?
  • Race in the Workforce (EX or. 8802…)
  • War economy to consumer economy.
21 point program
21 Point program
  • Improve coverage of unemployment compensation
  • Increase the minimum wage
  • Maintain & extend price controls to keep down the cost of living
  • End war time contracts & controls
  • Legislation to ensure full employment.
21 point program1
21 Point Program
  • Make Fair Employment Practice Committee permanent.
  • Maintain sound industrial relations.
  • Expand the United States Employment Service to provide jobs for military personnel.
  • Increased aid to farmers.
  • Remove restrictions on eligibility for voluntary enlistment and allow the armed forces to enlist a greater number of volunteers.
21 point program2
21 Point Program
  • Comprehensive housing legislation.
  • Create a single Federal research agency.
  • Revise the taxation system.
  • Encourage surplus-property disposal.
  • Greater levels of assistance to small businesses.
21 point program3
21 Point Program
  • Improve federal aid to war veterans.
  • Expand public works, conserve and build up natural resources.
  • Help post-war reconstruction and settle the obligations of the Lend-Lease Act.
  • A decent pay scale for all Federal Government employees—executive, legislative, and judicial.
  • Promote sale of ships.
  • Maintain stock piles of materials necessary for meeting the defense needs of the nation.
gi bill of rights 1944
GI Bill of Rights - 1944

w

  • Zero down low interest home loans
  • Attend college of their choice for free as long as they met admission requirements
  • Zero down low interest business loans
  • Over 2 million go to school
railway strikes 1946
Railway Strikes - 1946
  • Lasted one month, nationwide (passenger and freight)
  • Workers upset over gov. control of wages, prices & Unions
  • Truman threatened to draft the strikers
executive order 9981 1948
Executive Order 9981- 1948

Desegregates US Armed Forces, equal opportunity for all races, religions and nationalities.

congressional elections 1946
Congressional Elections 1946
  • Backlash for how Truman handled the labor strikes and continued price controls
  • Truman’s approval rating dropped to 32%

- Republicans won 53% majority in Congress

Doh!

taft hartley act 1947
Taft Hartley Act – 1947
  • Limited the power of Unions
  • Outlawed Closed Shop Unions (employer can only hire union members and everyone is automatically a member of the union)
  • Truman vetoed the bill…but the Republican congress overrode his veto.
post war prosperity 21 points
Post War Prosperity (21 Points)
  • Research and Development
    • New Technologies
  • Cheap Energy
    • Oil in Iran and Saudi Arabia
  • Transitional Economy
    • War to Peace economy, US had saved $, wages high
  • GI Bill
    • Soldiers in school, buying homes, opening businesses
  • Continued Military Spending
    • 1948 - $97 Mill., 1949 - $128 Mill., 1951- $225 Mill.
1948 election
1948 Election
  • Early polls showed Dewey (republican) ahead
  • Truman campaigned like a mad man “Do nothing Congress”
  • Had support of minorities, farmers & labor

He won 49.6% of the vote

new dealer gives a fair deal
New Dealer gives a Fair Deal
  • Increased minimum wage to 75 cents an hour
  • Extended Social Security
  • Tried to make national health care…failed
  • Housing Act
    • Money for slum clearance
    • Fair Housing Administration created to help with mortgages
difficulty with the fair deal
Difficulty with the Fair Deal
  • 1946 Republican Congress made it difficult to pass legislation
    • Tax cuts were passed
    • Price controls were removed
  • After years of Democrats, people were becoming more conservative
  • American Medical Association stood in the way of health care
handout questions
Handout Questions:
  • Evaluate Truman’s peacetime leadership, using specific examples from the reading to back up your opinion.
  • What problems did Truman have to deal with at home?
  • What were his successes and failures? Explain
cold war liberalism
Cold War Liberalism
  • Truman held onto New Deal welfare programs while developing his containment policy
  • Fought subversives at home
    • Partly by choice and partly by necessity
    • Paranoia over domestic subversion weakened support for bold welfare programs
the red scare
The Red Scare
  • Threat?
    • Files opened in Moscow in 1991 + intercepted Soviet cables (Project Venona) showed there was something
    • FDR’s assistant Sec. of Treasury, Harry Dexter White, supplied Soviets with information
    • Strategically planted midlevel people in the State Dept. (Alger Hiss) also gave info
    • Several 100 more spies only known by their code names were communicating with Soviets
julius and ethel rosenberg
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
  • Convicted of giving atomic secrets to the Soviets
  • 1995 US gov. released decoded Soviet cables confirming Julius had given Soviets info and acted as a recruiter
  • David Greenglass (Ethel’s brother) gave Julius info from Los Almos, confessed and was not executed
  • Julius and Ethel were executed June 19th 1953
spies
Spies
  • Many were young New Dealers in the 1930’s
  • Passing secrets to another country is indefensible…for many the lines were blurred
  • After WWII most suppliers to the Soviets stopped
  • Professional recruiting by Soviets was disrupted by CIA
  • Many Americans believed it was much worse than it really was
loyalty security program
Loyalty Security Program
  • Ex Order 9835 (March 21st 1947)
    • Permitted officials to investigate any federal gov. employee (2.5 million) for subversive activities (centralization of power)
loyalty security program1
Loyalty Security Program
  • Intended for sabotage and treason, but was broad enough to accuse anyone for the slightest reason:
    • Marching in a communist parade in the 1930’s
    • Signing petition for public housing
    • 1,000’s of homosexuals were dismissed in the 1950’s as “unfit” for government service
loyalty programs
Loyalty Programs
  • State and local governments, universities, political organizations, churches and businesses created their own anti-subversion campaigns
  • Congress of Industrial workers expelled a number of unions
  • NAACP and the National Urban League expelled communists and “fellow travelers” (people who sympathize with communist beliefs without formally joining them)
house of un american activities
House of Un-American Activities
  • Launched in 1938
  • Held widely publicized hearings on alleged communist infiltration
hollywood ten
Hollywood Ten
  • Hollywood was extensively looked into
  • Writers and directors went to jail for refusing to testify about their past or name names
      • Dalton Trumbo – Johnny Got His Gun
  • 100’s of actors, writers and directors were blacklisted
red scare labor and civil rights
Red Scare, Labor and Civil Rights
  • Communists were the most effective labor organizers
  • American Communist Party (CPUSA) promoted black civil rights before many others
  • Soviet records show the CPUSA was not independent, and took money and instructions from Moscow, pushing their agenda when infiltrating other organizations
  • Was the Red Scare real?
mccarthyism
McCarthyism

Senator Joe McCarthy from WI gave a speech at Wheeling Virginia, Feb. 1950 claiming he had names of 57 known communists in the government.

His numbers changed with every speech.

He never released names or gave proof.

mccarthyism1
McCarthyism
  • His subcommittee was a smear campaign
  • Critics were accused of being soft on communism
  • Truman called it slander, lies and character assassination, but could not stop it
  • Republicans did nothing to restrain him, and took advantages of the political benefits
downfall of mccarthy
Downfall of McCarthy
  • 1954 – McCarthy investigated the military
  • Hearings were broadcast on TV and showed him to be a bully a loss of public support
  • Dec. 1954 the Senate voted 67 to 22 to censure McCarthy unbecoming conduct
  • He dies 3 years later of alcoholism (48 years old)
containment
Containment
  • Policy of halting the spread of communist influence
  • Reasons behind it:
    • Sovietization of Eastern Europe
    • Soviets move in on Iran, refusing to pull out its troops even after Iran seeks help from the UN, starvation tactics used
    • Dec. 1945 Foreign Ministers Conference US not treated right
    • 84 Americans imprisoned in Poland for being in an underground army that fought Nazis
reasons for containment
Reasons for Containment
  • US officials insulted in Yugoslavia and Bulgaria
  • US correspondents held incommunicado in China
  • Feb. 1946 Stalin gave his Election speech blaming WWII on capitalism, and that capitalism is the primary enemy
the long telegram
The Long Telegram
  • George Kennan “Mr. X”
  • Feb 1946 – Kennan did not originate policy of containment, Truman had been going in this direction
  • Kennan did not discuss Soviet capabilities – one of containment’s central concerns
  • LT – discussed Soviet fear of encirclement
  • USSR history and manipulation of UN
  • Underground tactics through comm. Parties and infiltration in unions etc.
long telegram
Long Telegram
  • Soviet doctrine stems from traditional insecurity
  • Significance of ideology in Soviet affairs, but never accepted it as the driving force behind foreign policy
  • Truman emphasized soviet ideology as their prime motivation, Bolshevik Rev. had created a new national identity
  • Truman viewed communism as a secular religion that created their world view and threatened liberty
churchill s iron curtain speech
Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech
  • March 5th 1946 in Fulton Missouri
  • Blames USSR for dividing Europe, Truman not exactly neutral
  • Public accepted it, but did not want a formal alliance with Britain
  • 1945 - 30% disapproved of Soviet foreign policy, 1946 - 71% disapprove and 60% thought the US was too soft
nsc 68 april 14 th 1950
NSC-68 April 14th 1950
  • Called for extensive military spending
  • Defense of Western Hemisphere
  • Provide aid to allies against communist threats
  • Discussed Soviet manipulation of the free world
  • Use of covert operations to defend the free world
truman doctrine march 12 th 1947
Truman Doctrine March 12th 1947
  • Britain had support the Republican gov. in Greece against Greek Communists in their civil war, but could no longer afford to help them
  • Turkey was being threatened by Soviets
  • Truman argued if they did not receive aid, they would both fall
  • (Read excerpt of TD)
marshall plan european recovery program
Marshall Plan (European Recovery Program)
  • April 1948
  • Economic support to help rebuild war torn European nations
  • Offered to ALL, communist countries refused, although Czechoslovakia and Poland wanted the aid but were bullied to back down
  • Worked very well and helped build up self-esteem as well as industry (and helped keep communism at bay)
cia in italian elections
CIA in Italian Elections
  • 1948 – Italian communists were very popular & received money from the Soviets
  • CIA gave centrist parties $1 million dollars
    • Forged letters to discredit communist leaders
    • Wrote 10 million letters
    • Broadcast radio announcements for candidates
    • Published books and articles warning Italians about the dangers of Communism
    • Time Magazine supported the Christian Dem. Leader by putting him on the April 19th 1948 cover
berlin airlift
Berlin Airlift

Germany (and Berlin) had been separated into 4 zones and governed by the Allied Control Council: USSR, USA, Britain and France

ACC splits after the USA, Britain and France create their own currency against Stalin’s wishes

berlin airlift june1948 may1949
Berlin Airlift June1948-May1949
  • Stalin wants to take over Berlin, doesn’t like that the WEST can easily go through his zone
  • Didn’t want to start a war, so he tried to push the West into either abandoning Berlin or starting a war by blocking the West’s access to Berlin.
  • Truman helps set up a massive airlift of supplies to West Berlin, over 200,000 flights
  • Embarrassed Stalin, and made him look bad for starving workers, the supposed champion of workers
slide44
NATO
  • Created in April 1949 in response to the Berlin Blockade which also led to the creation of Federal Republic of Germany (west) & People’s Republic of Germany (east)
  • Intergovernmental military alliance for collective defense
  • Headquarters in Belgium

Led to the counter organization: Warsaw Pact

organization of american states
Organization of American States
  • Founded April 30th 1948
  • Purpose: hemispheric cooperation & solidarity
  • Headquartered in Washington D.C.
  • 9th International Conference of American States in Bogota (March 1948) led by US Sec. of State, George Marshall. Members pledged to fight communism in the Western Hemisphere and created the charter for the Organization of American States.
organization of american states1
Organization of American States
  • Members: United States, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Dominican Republic, Uruguay, Venezuela,
  • Adopted the world’s 1st human rights declaration
  • Created out of fear that the US would intervene against LA governments.
organization of american states2
Organization of American States
  • Disappointment for the US: Other members did not share our Cold War zeal
  • Disappointment for Latin America: It did not effectively stop the US from intervening, or giving up its “gunboat diplomacy”
korean war
Korean War…
  • Korea divided at the 38th parallel, many soldiers were killed in border skirmishes
  • June 25th 1950 North Korea invaded the South
  • US advocates the UN to defend South Korea, the Soviets were not there to veto it.
  • Gen. Douglas MacArthur led the command…
  • He gets over zealous and pushes north of 38th parallel.
korean war1
Korean War
  • China gets involved and pushes back south of the 38th parallel
  • MacArthur talks about using nuclear weapons against China. Truman has no choice but to dismiss MacArthur, who was not listening to Truman, and is replaced by Gen. Matthew Ridgway.
korean war2
Korean War
  • The end of Truman and the democrats who could not seem to find an end to the war.
  • Truman was seen as soft for not using nuclear bombs, many Americans saw MacArthur as a hero
  • Led to the victory of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953.