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Tuberculosis. By Daryn Green and Zoë Kallus. History. Sylvius: First to identify tubercules 17 th century (1679) Published in Opra Medica 1970: First breakout of MDR-TB 1993: TB is declared a global emergency 1995: outbreak in London HIV hospital Large Prevalence in Siberia.

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tuberculosis

Tuberculosis

By

Daryn Green and Zoë Kallus

history
History
  • Sylvius: First to identify tubercules
        • 17th century (1679)
        • Published in Opra Medica
  • 1970: First breakout of MDR-TB
  • 1993: TB is declared a global emergency
  • 1995: outbreak in London HIV hospital
  • Large Prevalence in Siberia
background knowledge
Background Knowledge
  • Tuberculosis AKA TB
  • Has two different forms
      • Active
      • Latent
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Bacillus (rod-shaped)
  • Slow moving
two types of tb
Two Types of TB

Latent

Active

Infected; with Symptoms

Contagious

  • Infected; without Symptoms
  • Bacteria in body
  • Not Contagious
  • Signs of infection
    • Tuberculin skin test
    • TB blood test
symptoms
Symptoms
  • No Symptoms in the primary stage
  • Pulmonary stage
    • Coughing mucus and blood
    • Fever
    • Chest pains and Wheezing
    • Pus and Blood in Urine
    • Swollen/Tender Lymph nodes
    • Pleural effusion
    • Unusual breathing sounds
  • Start off in lungs and spread throughout the body
how does tb attack the body
How Does TB Attack the Body?
  • TB infects the bodies macrophages(WBC’s)
    • Normally macrophages engulf bacteria and release enzymes that destroy bacteria
  • TB secretes protein that targets protein in macrophage
    • TB hides and multiplies in macrophage
  • Macrophage is killed
    • Bacteria is released and spreads throughout body
  • Macrophages transport bacteria to lymph nodes
    • Can spread throughout body

Tubercule in action -

treatment
Treatment
  • In Primary stages (preventative therapy)
    • Medicine is given to attempt to kill bacteria
  • In Secondary stages
    • A regimen of four different drugs
    • Mainly isoniazed, rifampid, pyrazinamide, ethambutell
    • Taken for 6+ months
    • If not taken correctly, MDR-TB might occur
how tb is spread
How TB is Spread
  • Person to person
  • Airborne
    • Bacteria attaches to water droplets in air
  • NOT Vector borne
prevention
Prevention
  • Cover mouth when sneezing and coughing
  • Take all medication
  • Vaccines
    • BCG: older vaccine; does not work on everyone
  • Isoniazid is used as preventive drug
multi drug resistant tb
Multi-Drug Resistant TB
  • AKA MDR-TB
  • A mutated form of TB
          • Resistant to Isoniazid and Rifampicin
          • Caused by ineffective drug use
extensively drug resistant tb
Extensively Drug Resistant TB
  • AKA XDR-TB
  • Responds to even fewer medication
  • Of 650,000 cases of MDR-TB, 9% were XDR-TB
works cited
Works Cited

<www.who.int/en>