Dreams: The Royal Road to the Unconscious • How does Freud’s understanding of human nature influence and determine his theories of dream interpretation?
Questions: Freud’s Theory of Dream Analysis • How is the psyche a battleground? • What happens if the id is not tamed, or becomes too dominant? • What happens if the ego and super-ego become too dominant? • What happened when emotions and desires are not expressed? • What is the censor and how does it influence our dreams and sleep?
Freud’s Dream Theory: complex because: Kept modifying as he went along Never presented a comprehensive summary of his final views
Freud’s Dream Theory • Still more comprehensive than most: he provided a theory of: • motivation • thinking (which includes dreaming) • personality development (psychosexual theory) • mental structures (id, ego, superego) • psychopathology and psychotherapy
Wanted to link theories of dream interpretation to biology Used the term “instincts” Drive as tension looking for release Two basic forms of drive energy (Yin/yang) Libido - sexual/erotic Thanatos - aggressive/destructive The Drive Theory: Sex and Aggression
Dream Formation • Springs from unacceptable, unconscious wishes • Sexual • Aggressive • Egoistic • Latent vs. Manifest content • Censorship
Function of Dream? • To protect sleep • Wish fulfillment
What is Dream Work? • The transformation of desire • Displacement? • Shifts emotion from one idea to another • Condensation? • Fuses together multiple thoughts into a single symbol
Goal of Dreamwork? • Together with symbolization and projection, dreamwork components work together to make dream-thoughts and images (wish-desires) into acceptable forms
DEFENSE MECHANISMS INFLUENCE ON DREAMS? • Repression • Regression • Reaction formation • Projection • Rationalization • Displacement • banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts and feelings from consciousness • retreating to an earlier, more infantile stage of development • the ego unconsciously makes unacceptable impulses look like their opposites • Attributing one’s own unacceptable threatening impulses to others • offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions • shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet