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What does a biologist study ? the earth the weather c . living things d . only animals. Susie decided to test the effectiveness of 3 new fertilizers on her tomato plants. She decided to divide her garden into sections and apply a different fertilizer to each section.

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What does a biologist study?

the earth

the weather

c. living things

d. only animals

Susie decided to test the effectiveness of 3 new fertilizers on her tomato plants. She decided to divide her garden into sections and apply a different fertilizer to each section.

What part of Susie’s experiment would be the independent variable?

a. the growth of the plants

b. the amount of water

c. the amount of light given to each plant

d. the type of fertilizer given to each plant

What should Susie do as a control for her experiment?
  • a. give each plant the same type of fertilizer
  • b. grow one of the sections with no fertilizer
  • c. give each plant the same amount of water
  • d. use the same type of plant in each section
A chloroplast can convert light, carbon

dioxide, and water into

a. vacuoles. c. proteins

b. sugar d. fat

Which of the following is NOT a component of the modern cell theory?
  • a. Cells were able to form from non-living materials in the past.
  • b. All organisms are composed of one or more cells.
  • c. The cell is the basic unit of life.
  • d. All cells come from previously existing living cells.
The fluid mosaic model presents
  • the modern view of

a. a cell membrane.

  • chromosomes.
  • how cells group together.
  • the nucleus.
Homeostasis is

a. the reproduction of cells.

b. a state of biological balance.

c. the transport of proteins against a concentration gradient.

d. the process of molecules spreading out evenly across an environment.

Cells store energy when

a. the third phosphate group breaks off from an ATP molecule.

b. they break down sucrose to glucose and fructose.

c. a third phosphate group is bonded to an ADP molecule.

d. ions are released into the bloodstream

Which structure contains most of the cell’s DNA?

The cell shown is probably an animal cell because

it has mitochondria

it does not have a cell wall

it has a cell membrane

d. it does not have a nucleus

Osmosis is a process involving movement toward equilibrium. Pick from the following the situation the one that you wouldn't expect to undergo any osmosis.

a. a plant cell placed in plain distilled water b. a plant cell placed in salty water c. a plant cell placed in water with the same salt concentration as the cell d. a plant cell placed in sugar water

Concentration of solutes inside and outside the cell are equal when

a. the solution is isotonic.

b. the solution is hypotonic.

c. the solution is hypertonic.

d. the solution is isometric.




13. allows molecules to pass by diffusion - C

14. may help to identify the cell - A

  • requires energy to transport molecules
  • across the membrane - B
Cellular respiration that requires oxygen is

anaerobic respiration.

aerobic respiration.

c. alcoholic fermentation

d. lactic acid fermentation.

The main source of energy for living things is a 6-carbon sugar called

a. glucose. c. lactic acid.

b. ribose. d. deoxyribose.

How might an athlete know that lactic acid

fermentation has occurred in her muscles?

a. she is short of breath c. her muscles are sore

b. she is hungry d. she is thirsty

Which of the following equations best represents


a. C + O2 + H2O  CO2 + HOH

b. 6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2

c. 6C + 6H2O  C6H12O6

d. C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O

Sequence the six diagrams in order from first to last.

a. E,C,F,A,D,B c. D,B,F,C,E,A

b. A,B,C,D,E,F d. D,A,F,C,E,B

If a body cell of a particular organism has 60

chromosomes, how many chromosomes would

each sex cell have?

a. 60 c. 15

b. 30 d. 120

Meiosis occurs in the formation of

a. body cells and sex cells. c. sex cells only.

b. body cells only. d. only body cells of prokaryotes.

Which of the following describes an organism

that has the genotype Bb?

a. homozygous c. inbred

b. heterozygous d. all of these

Any change in the DNA of an organism is called a:

a. mutation c. replication

b. transcription d. pedigree

If one side of a DNA molecule had the base

sequence AGTTCCACTTGA, which of the following

would represent the DNA sequence of that same

side in a new molecule if the original one is




Structure III represents a(n)

a. gene c. codon

b. amino acid d. DNA molecule

29. The process illustrated in the diagram above is

a. translation. c. cell division.

b. replication. d. transcription.

TRUE / FALSE a = true b = false

30. The vacuole in an animal cell is much larger than those of plant cells. F

31. In photosynthesis, light energy is used to break down water into hydrogen and oxygen. T

32. Plants require oxygen in order to perform photosynthesis. F

33. Individuals must exhibit a trait in order for it to appear in their offspring. F

A trait controlled by four alleles is said to be
  • a. homologous. c. polygenic.
  • a recessive trait. d. Incompletely


The type of inheritance shown when a red-flowering plant is crossed with a white-flowering plant and only pink-flowering plants are produced is

a. inbreeding. c. codominance.

b. polygenic inheritance. d. incomplete dominance.

The diagram above represents a molecule of

a. tRNA c. glucose

b. mRNA d. DNA

Which of the following do the circles in the diagram represent?

a. ribose c. deoxyribose

b. phosphate d. guanine

Which of the following is represented by the

figure on the diagram labeled “x”?

a. phosphate c. thymine

b. uracil d. cytosine

Because the gene for hemophilia is located on the X chromosome, it is normally not possible for
  • a. carrier mothers to pass the gene on to their daughters.
  • b. carrier mothers to pass the gene on to their sons.
  • c. hemophiliac fathers to pass the gene on to their daughters.
  • d. hemophiliac fathers to pass the gene on to their sons.
When roan, (reddish-brown), cattle are mated, 25% of the offspring are red, 50% of the offspring are roan, and 25% are white. Upon examination, it can be seen that the coat of a roan cow consists of both red and white hairs. This trait is controlled by

a. multiple alleles. c. sex-linked genes.

b. codominant alleles. d. polygenic inheritance

Two healthy parents produce a child with the
  • genetic disorder of cystic fibrosis,
  • which is the result of a recessive gene. What
  • would be the best explanation for this
  • inheritance?
Examine the graph below, which illustrates the frequency in types of skin pigmentation in humans. Another human trait that would show a similar inheritance pattern and frequency of distribution is _____.
Those components of Earth’s atmosphere which

absorb infrared radiation and trap heat are

called _________________.

a. ozone c. greenhouse gases

b. carbon offsets d. CFC’s

On which of the following do the others most


a. producers c. consumers

b. herbivores d. omnivores

Suppose that due to a change in climate, the amount of annual rainfall in a certain desert increases slightly. Which of the following might the desert environment become?

a. a tundra c. an estuary

b. a coral reef d. a grassland

Which of the following biomes has the most species of plants and animals?

a. temperate forest c. grassland

b. taiga d. tropical rain forest

As matter and energy move from grasses to coyotes, the amount of available energy

a. decreases. c. stays the same.

b. increases. d. is totally depleted.

Energy flows from

a. coyotes to grasses. c. mice to cats.

b. cats to mice. d. coyotes to cats.

The tundra would best be characterized by

a. low temperatures and much vegetation.

b. low temperatures and little vegetation.

c. high temperature and much vegetation.

d. high temperature and little vegetation.

Which of the following is NOT a source of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere?

a. engines burning carbon-based fuels

b. volcanic eruptions

c. fires

d nuclear power plants