QURANIC GRAMMAR AS-SARF“Morphology of the words”Lesson 14 Lessons from the book MABADE” ALA’RABIYAH – basics of Arabic Grammar RASHEED SHARTOONI Compiled by: Sheikh Safdar Razi Ali
Female intact plural((أ+ت • For example: مومنة (believer woman) becomes مومنات (believer women). • A noun (non-adjective) is put into the feminine intact plural form if: A. it is a female proper name, even if it does not end in the feminine tā’. For example: هِند, مريم becomes .مريمات B. it is a infinitive that has more than three letters. For example: تعريف, إحسان(definition) becomes تعريفات (definitions). إحسانات C. it is a noun (masculine or feminine) that ends in one of the feminine letters. For example: جميلة ,وَرَقَة (paper) becomes وَرَقات (papers) جميلات.
Further examples • An adjective (derived –MOSHTAQ) is put into the feminine intact plural form if it ends in one of the feminine letters. for example: .معدودات (few numbers), کَبيرة (big female) becomes کَبيرات (big females). masculine non-intellectual beings in the minimized form, for example: دُرَيهمات (few pennies)
Exceptional rules for female intact plural • maqsūr and mamdūd nouns; the same actions taken in the dual form apply in the sound feminine plural as well, for example: فُضلَياتورَحَيَاتوعَصَوَاتوصحراوات . (فضلى,رحى,عصا,صحراء) • Triliteral nouns (non-adjectives) whose first root (FAA of the word) letter has a fathah; if the second root letter is sound and does not have a vowel sign then it is given a fathah, for example: تَمَرَات which was .تَمرَة (TAMRAHTAMRAAT)
Exceptional on Dual (مثنّى) – Ends with Noon(ن) and is possessed If it ends with Noon and is possessed (Modhaaf), the noon will be removed. Katabaan Mohammadinكتابان محمد : two books of Mohammad Katabaa/ Katabay Mohammadin كتابا/كتابي محمد
Dual (مثنّى) – Exceptions The following are originally dual and do not have a single form. They are not suffixed with Alif and Noon: Isnaan (2)اثنان Isnataan (2) – Female اثنتان Sintaan (2) Female – Some use it ثنتان Killa / Kilata كلا KILAA – Both (Male ) كلتا KILTA: Both (Female) You must use كلا KILAA /كلتا KILTA with a definite noun or attach it with a dual pronoun كلا/كلي الرجُلين Kilaa/ KILAY Ar-Rajulayn / كلاهما / كليهماKilahuma/kilayhima (both two men)
Male Intact Plural -Regular • Male Intact Plural cannot be applied to nouns ending with a suffix (ta): Fatimah فاطمة • Male Intact Plural cannot be applied to a compound statement : Abdullah عبدالله , Hamzahحمزء • And cannot be for foreign nouns أبراهيم • Male Intact Plural cannot be for original Female. Zainabزينب ,Wet Nurseمرضع ,Pregnantوحمراء
BROKEN PLURALS • A broken plural is a plural where the original letters of the word are reformed by either adding or decreasing at least one letter i.e. breaking the original noun and not keeping it intact as in male/female intact plural and dual forms. example: کتاب(book) becomes کُتب (books). • or by changing the form –vowel signs (USDON), • Therefore there are three types of broken plurals: A. by changing the verbalization of the word, for example: أسَدٌ (ASADON) (lion) becomes أُسدٌ (USDON) (lions). B. by erasing one of the letters of the word, for example: رَسولٌ (messenger) becomes رُسُلٌ (messengers). C. by adding letters to the word, for example: رَجُلٌ (man) becomes رِجالٌ (men).
Standard forms for certain nouns • Broken plural forms for some nouns : A. فَعَل becomes فِعال , : جَمَل(camel) becomes جِمال (camels) B. فِعَل becomes أفعال , : عِنَب(grape) becomes أعناب (grapes) C. فَعِل becomes أفعال , : کَتِف(shoulder) becomes أکتاف D. فِعل becomes أفعال , : طِفل(child) becomes أطفال (children) E. فُعلَة becomes فُعَل , : عُلبَة(box) becomes عُلَب (boxes) F. فِعلَة becomes فِعَل , : حِرفة(occupation) becomes حِرَف G. فاعِل becomes فَواعل , :خاتِم (ring) becomes خواتم (rings) H. فاعلة becomes فَواعل , قائمة (leg) becomes قوائم (legs) I. فعيلة becomes فَعائل , قبيلة (tribe) becomes قبائل (tribes) J. فعيلة becomes فَعايل , مکيدة (scheme) becomes مکايد K. مِفعَل becomes مَفاعِل , مِنجَل (sickle) becomes مَناجِل (sickles) L. مِفعال becomes مَفاعيل , مِفتاح (key) becomes مَفاتيح (keys) • All quadriliteral nouns where a long vowel is added before its last letter become: • فَعاليل , for example: عُصفورbecomes عَصافير
Broken plural forms for adjectives • Standard forms for some adjectives (derived nouns): A. أفعَل which becomes feminine in the following form فَعلاء becomes فُعل (FUO’LON) , for example: أحمَر (red) becomes حُمر B. أفعَل which is the comparative/superlative form becomes أفاعِل (AFAAE’L), for example:أفضَل (better) becomes أفاضِل , أکبر becomesأکابِر
Few rules of broken plural • فاعِلة becomes فَواعل or فُعَّل , for example: عاذِلة becomes عَواذِلوعُذَّل • فَعيل when it means subject becomes أفعال , for example: شَريف = أشراف , if it indicates a character trait it becomes فُعَلاءوفعال , for example: کَريم becomes کُرماءوکرام , • and if it is a double-lettered word or a defective word it becomes أفعلاء (AFE’LAA), for example: شقي becomes أشقياء • فَعيل if it has the meaning of object indicating becomes فَعلیَ for example: جريح becomes جَرحیَ • فَعُول meaning subject becomes أفعال , for example:عدو becomesأعداء • فَعلان becomes فُعالی orفِعال , for example: drunk سکران = سُکاری, غضاب = angry غضبان
Broken plural from the aspect of the quantity • There are two types of broken plurals: a plural of small number(قلة), which is a plural that indicates three to ten, and a plural of large number ((كثرة, which is a plural that indicates three or more. • There are four forms for the plural of small number: • أفعُل , for example: أنفُس souls • أفعال , for example: ,أجداد , grand fathers • أفعِلَة for example: أعمدَة , pillars • فِعلَة , for example فِتيَة . Youth Any other form used as a broken plural is a plural of large number. These forms are used interchangeably (KATHRA for QILLAH and vice versa) metaphorically.
Plural of the plural • The form of a plural of a plural is any plural where after there are two letters with vowel signs after an added alif, for example: دَراهِم , or if a yā’ falls in between three letters, for example: .رياحِين • A plural is made plural to increase the number of whatever it is making plural, for example: الأيادي which is the plural of الأيدي which is the plural of .اليد • Two forms that are used to make a plural of plural in the same way that a singular noun is made plural according to its form: • أنمل= أنامل finger tips • أظافير=أظفار nails • Plural in its origin indicates a group which has no singular for it . شَعب but these can be made plural in the same way as singular nouns according to their forms, as an example the plural of قوم becomes .أقوام • Plural by removal of tā’, for example تُفَّاحَة =تُفَّاحَ , or a yā’, for example: .إفرَنجي=أفرنج