QURANIC GRAMMAR AS-SARF“Morphology of the words”Lesson 5 Lessons from the book MABADE” ALA’RABIYAH – basics of Arabic Grammar RASHEED SHARTOONI Compiled by: Sheikh Safdar Razi Ali
MOJARRAD AND MAZEED • The verb which is used to derive a MASDAR is basically past tense therefore note the example verbs taken previously to convert to a MASDAR (noun) are past tense and the forms of MOJARRAD and MAZEED studied here will also be repeated when studying the past tense. • MOJARRAD is referred to the root verb or the MASDAR which does not have any addition in the root verb and this MOJARRAD verb or MASDAR could be tri – letter or four letter • A MAZEED verb (past tense) or MASDAR which has addition of letters to its MOJARRAD (root).
THE INFINITIVE (ALMASDAR) An infinitive is that which denotes a state or an action without denoting its time, (it is not called a verbal noun that is some thing else) for example:.حُسنٌ HOSNON (beauty) from the verb HASONA (beautified) All infinitives are formed by grammatical rules except infinitives of triliteral MOJARRAD verbs, for there are many forms which cannot be known except by referring to dictionaries.
MOJARRAD AND MAZEED الَّذِينَ اسْتَجَابُواْ لِلّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا أَصَابَهُمُ الْقَرْحُ لِلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُواْ مِنْهُمْ وَاتَّقَواْ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ [Shakir 3:172] (As for) those who responded (at Ohud) to the call of Allah and the Messenger after the wound had befallen them, those among them who do good (to others) and guard (against evil)shall have a great reward.
4 Mazeed with one letter If you increase three lettered Mojarrad Verb by one letter, you can have the following forms: Fa’ّala with a shaddah on the A’YN of the verb (فَعَلَ) Form: Alima Al’lama (Taught) عَلَمَ عَلَم Afa’la (اَفعَلَ) Form: KaramaAkrama (Become Generous) اكَرَمَ كَرَمَ Faa’ala (فَاعَلَ) Form: ShahidaShaahada (Witness) شاهَدَ شهَدَ
4 Mazeed with one letter • Sketch A page 23 MABADE part two
Mazeed with two letters If you increase the three lettered Mojarrad Verb by Two letter, you can have the following 5 forms: Tafa’ala with SHADDAH on A’YN (تَفََعَلَ)Form: Ta’al’lama (He Learned) تَعَلَم Tafaaal(تفاعَلَ) Form Tashaaraka (Associated) تشارَك Infa’ala(أنفعل ) Form: InTalaqa & Insarafa (Left) Ifta’ala(أفتعل) Form: Ijtamaa’ (he met ) Ifa’alّa with SHADDAH on LAAM (اِفعَلَ) Form: Ihmar’ra (Become Red) إحمَرَ
4 Mazeed with two letters • Sketch B page 23 MABADE part two
Mazeed with three letter If you increase the three lettered Mojarrad Verb by Three letters, you can have the following forms: Istafal(اِستَفعَلَ ) Form: Istafsfara (Seeking the Meaning) Ifawala(اِفعَوعَلَ ) Form: Ihdowdaba (Bending) اِحدَودَبَ If’aal’lّa with SHADDAH on LAAM (افعالَ ) Form: Ik’dhaar’ra (Becoming Very Green) ّاخضارَ
MAZEED with three increased letter A. اِستَفعَلَ (ISTAFA’LA)This is form X. Here a glottal stop, sīn and tā’ are added. For example: اِستَغفَرَ (he asked for forgiveness) B. اِفعَوعَلَ (IFA’OWA’LA)This is form XII. Here a glottal stop and a wāw are added along with another second root letter , example: اِحدَودَبَ (It was bent outward) For Form XI is not mentioned in this book
4 Mazeed with three letters • Sketch page 24 MABADE part two
Four lettered Mazeed with max two The increase in theFour lettered Mojarrad Verb by One or Two letters (A verb cannot exceed 6 letters), will be discussed further when studying the verbs in detail.
The infinitives for verbs with increase letters are as follows • A. فَعَّلَ becomes تَفعيل و تَفعيلَة • B. فاعَلَ becomes مُفاعَلَة و فِعال • C. أفعَلَ becomes إفعال • D. تَفَعَّلَ becomes تَفَعُّل • E. تفاعَلَ becomes تَفاعُل • F. اِفتَعَلَ becomes اِفتِعال • G. اِنفَعَلَ becomes اِنفِعال • H. اِفعَّلَ becomes اِفعِلال • I. اِستَفعَلَ becomes اِستِفعال • J. اِفعَوعَلَ becomes اِفعِيعال
Increase on three letter MOJARRAD • Sketch page 85 MABADE part three
Four letter K. تَفَعلَلَ becomes تَفَعلُل L. اِفعَنلَلَ becomes اِفعِنلال M. اِفعَلَلَّ becomes اِفعِلَّال
Are all the forms of triliteral verbs with increase letters applied to all triliteral verbs? No, in order to know which forms are applied to which verbs one must refer to dictionaries because many of them are without standard form (SOMAAE’YAH). For example form IV أفعَلََ (AFA’LA) and XII اِفعَوعَلَ (IFA’OWA’LA) This are not applied to the verb فَتَحَ
Types of four letter MASDAR • The pattern for the quadriliteral verb is .فعلل (FA’LALA)The LAAM at the end distinguishes the tri and the Quadra. • There are two infinitives for quadriliteral MOJARRAD verbs : • فَعلَلَة و فِعلال • ZALZALAH and ZILZAAL • The second فِعلال follows the rules in double-lettered verbs, for example: WASWASA وَسوَسَ = WASWASAH وَسوَسَة and WISWAAS وِسواس • and this is according to how Arabs use them in other than double-lettered verbs, For example: .دَحرَجَ دَحرَجَة و دِحراج
explanation There are two types of quadriliteral MOJARRAD verbs: A. Regular: when there aren’t any repeated letters in its root. For example: دَحرَجَ (he rolled) B. Repeated-lettered: when the first and third root letters are identical as well as the second and fourth. For example زَلزَلَ (it quaked) IN the above both examples all the four letters are root letters.
A MAZEED quadriliteral verb • There is one form of a quadriliteral verb with one increase letter: • A. تَفَعلَلَ (TAFA’LALA) This is form II. Here a tā’ is added to the root. For example: تَدَحرَجَ (he rolled down)
A MAZEED quadrilateral verb with two increased letters • There are two forms of a quadrilateral verb with two increase letters: • A. اِفعَنلَلَ (IFA’NLALA) This is form III. Here a glottal stop and a nūn are added. For example اِحرَنجَمَ (translate) • B. اِفعَلَلَّ (IFALALLA)This is form IV. Here a glottal stop is added and the fourth root letter is doubled. For example: اِقشَعَرَّ(he shivered)
5 Mazeed of four letter root verb • Sketch page 27 MABADE part two
How many forms of quadriliteral verbs with increase letters are there? There are three forms of quadriliteral verbs with increase letters. Are all the forms of quadriliteral verbs with increase letters applied to all quadrilteral verbs? No, to know which forms are applied to which verbs one must refer to dictionaries (سماعية). For example forms III and IV forms are not applied to the verb .دَحرَجَ
المصدر إِنَّ الَّذِينَ ارْتَدُّوا عَلَى أَدْبَارِهِم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْهُدَى الشَّيْطَانُ سَوَّلَ لَهُمْ وَأَمْلَى لَهُمْ [Shakir 47:25] Surely (as for) those who return on their backs after that guidance has become manifest to them, the Shaitan has made it a light matter to them; and He gives them respite. اسْتَحْوَذَ عَلَيْهِمُ الشَّيْطَانُ فَأَنسَاهُمْ ذِكْرَ اللَّهِ أُوْلَئِكَ حِزْبُ الشَّيْطَانِ أَلَا إِنَّ حِزْبَ الشَّيْطَانِ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ [Shakir 58:19] The Shaitan has gained the mastery over them, so he has made them forget the remembrance of Allah; they are the Shaitan's party; now surely the Shaitan's party are the losers. فَانطَلَقَا حَتَّى إِذَا أَتَيَا أَهْلَ قَرْيَةٍ اسْتَطْعَمَا أَهْلَهَا فَأَبَوْا أَن يُضَيِّفُوهُمَا فَوَجَدَا فِيهَا جِدَارًا يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَنقَضَّ فَأَقَامَهُ قَالَ لَوْ شِئْتَ لَاتَّخَذْتَ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا [Shakir 18:77] So they went on until when they came to the people of a town, they asked them for food, but they refused to entertain them as guests. Then they found in it a wall which was on the point of falling, so he put it into a right state. (Musa) said: If you had pleased, you might certainly have taken a recompense for it.
إِنَّمَا يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَارْتَابَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ فَهُمْ فِي رَيْبِهِمْ يَتَرَدَّدُونَ [Shakir 9:45] They only ask leave of you who do not believe in Allah and the latter day and their hearts are in doubt, so in their doubt do they waver. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ اصْبِرُواْ وَصَابِرُواْ وَرَابِطُواْ وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ [Shakir 3:200] O you who believe! be patient and excel in patience and remain steadfast, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, that you may be successful. وَاسْتَفْزِزْ مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ مِنْهُمْ بِصَوْتِكَ وَأَجْلِبْ عَلَيْهِم بِخَيْلِكَ وَرَجِلِكَ وَشَارِكْهُمْ فِي الأَمْوَالِ وَالأَوْلادِ وَعِدْهُمْ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلاَّ غُرُورًا [Shakir 17:64] And beguile whomsoever of them you can with your voice, and collect against them your forces riding and on foot, and share with them in wealth and children, and hold out promises to them; and the Shaitan makes not promises to them but to deceive: