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Ancient Sumer. Geography. The World’s first civilization Sumer, developed in Mesopotamia “ land between the rivers.” Located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, Sumer was known for its rich soils and golden wheat fields. Flooding was a problem.

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Ancient Sumer

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  • The World’s first civilization Sumer, developed in Mesopotamia “ land between the rivers.”
  • Located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, Sumer was known for its rich soils and golden wheat fields.
  • Flooding was a problem.
  • The Sumerians built dikes and irrigation ditches to water their fields and protect their homes.
  • The Sumerians used clay and water to build their cities.
  • Besides farming, trade was the main focus of their economy.
  • Trade goods have been found in places as far away as Egypt and India.
  • Within a few hundred years of its beginning, Sumer included at least 12 separate city-states.
Each city-state had a single ruler who ran the city.
  • Social order-1.Ruling Family, 2.Leading Officials and Priests, 3.Scribes,Merchants, and artisans,4.Farmers,5. Slaves.
  • Women had less status than men but female gods were highly honored.
  • The Sumerians worshipped many gods and each city had a ziggurat, a big temple in the middle of the city.
  • By 3200 B.C., Sumerians had invented cuneiform.
  • It grew out of pictographs used to record goods brought to temple storehouses.
  • As time went on, the Sumerians used it to record myths, prayers, laws, and business contracts.
  • Sumerian Scribes went through years of difficult schooling to acquire their skills.
  • Their accomplishments:
  • 1.Number system based on an hour being 60 minutes and a circle being 360 degrees.
  • 2.The beginnings of basic algebra and geometry.
  • 3.An accurate calendar
  • 4. Writing System and the wheel
  • 5.Eclipses of the Sun and Moon.
  • 6.Oldest Story-The Epic of Gilgamesh
world response
World Response
  • Why did the Egyptians place so much emphasis on the preparation for the afterlife? Give me your opinion. (1-2 paragraphs)
  • What types of information about Ancient Egypt can we learn from colossal monuments such as the Steppe Pyramid or the Great Pyramid of Gaza? (1-2 paragraphs)
the old kingdom 2575 2130 b c
The Old Kingdom 2575-2130 B.C.
  • The era of the Pyramids
  • The Pharaohs(kings) established a strong, centralized state.
  • The Pharaohs ruled by means of a bureaucracy.
  • The vizier was the Pharaohs chief minister and gave instructions to thousands of scribes.
  • Social Order: 1. Pharaoh 2. Nobles 3. Merchants and Scribes 4. Peasants (most of the population)
  • Crop Failures, Power struggles, and cost of building of the Pyramids brought an end to the Old Kingdom.
the middle kingdom 1938 1630 b c
The Middle Kingdom 1938-1630 B.C.
  • An era of Chaos
  • Egypt had problems with food and nobles who wanted more power.
  • Egypt did end the privileges of nobles, expanded its borders, and established trade contacts with people outside of Egypt.
  • In 1700 B.C., Egypt was conquered by the Hyksos.
  • After 100 years of rule, the Egyptians drove out the Hyksos.
amon re king of the gods
Amon-Re “King of the Gods”
  • Sun God
  • Known as only Re in Old Kingdom.
  • Was called Amon Re in the Middle/New Kingdom.
  • Pharaohs received the right to rule from Amon Re
osiris and isis
Osiris and Isis
  • Ruled Egypt until he was killed by his brother Set.
  • His body was cut into pieces and tossed over Egypt.
  • His Wife Isis reassembled him and brought him back to life.
  • He became lord of the underworld.
the pharaoh akhenaton
The Pharaoh Akhenaton
  • Egyptian Gods and their priests dominated Egyptian life until the reign of the Pharaoh Akhenaton.
  • Originally named Amenhotep IV, around 1380 B.C., he changed his name to Akhenaton and tired to force everyone to worship Aton, a minor god.
  • Temples to the others gods were closed and priests lost their positions.
  • However, after his death, Egypt returned to the old ways.
how to prove yourself to osiris
How to prove yourself to Osiris
  • 1. Your soul is ferried across a lake of fire to the hall of Osiris.
  • 2. Your heart is weighed against the feather of truth.
  • 3. Osiris judges you.
  • Sinners-fed to crocodile-shaped Eater of the Dead
  • Worthy-enter the Happy Field of Food
  • To prepare for this ordeal, the Egyptians relied on the Book of the Dead.
preparing the dead
Preparing the Dead
  • The Egyptians believed the afterlife would be like life on Earth.
  • Result-they buried their dead everything they would need for eternity.
  • Mummification was a privilege that all Egyptians hoped to earn when they died.
½ Response
  • What do you think was Ancient Egypt’s greatest accomplishment and why?
the new kingdom 1539 1075 b c
The New Kingdom 1539-1075 B.C.
  • Egypt at the height of its power
  • Powerful rulers like Thutmose III and Ramses II expanded Egypt’s borders and made it a great empire.
  • Main rival was the Hittites with whom Egypt made the world’s first known peace treaty with in 1258 B.C.
  • Egypt slowly declined after 1100 B.C.and was conquered many times.
  • Last Egyptian rulers were replaced by the Greeks in 323 B.C.
  • The Romans officially ended Egyptian culture when they took over in 30 B.C.
india and china
India and China
  • Both lands have had advanced civilizations that lasted for thousands of years.
  • Both lands represent Eastern Civilization (we are Western Civilization).
  • These lands have always had a larger population base.
  • The people have completely different outlooks on life then we do.
  • Both lands are growing economically today.
religions and philosophies of india and china foldable
Religions and Philosophies of India and China Foldable
  • I. Hinduism pg.76-78 (list 7 things)
  • II. Buddhism pg.79-82 (list 10 things)
  • III. Confucianism pg.96-98 (list 8 things)
  • IV. Daoism pg.98 (list 5 things)
  • Need five areas with the title page as named above.