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Onboard/In-Field Automated Fault Detection and Diagnostics. a Subcommittee of the Advanced Technology Committee of the Western HVAC Performance Alliance Subcommittee Meeting 9:30am – 12:30pm (PT) December 11, 2012 Call-in: 712/432-0075 742911#

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onboard in field automated fault detection and diagnostics
Onboard/In-Field Automated Fault Detection and Diagnostics

a Subcommittee of the Advanced Technology Committee

of the Western HVAC Performance Alliance

Subcommittee Meeting

9:30am – 12:30pm (PT) December 11, 2012

Call-in: 712/432-0075 742911#

Weblink: http://uc-d.na4.acrobat.com/wcec/

  • 9:30 Recap of 2012, Results of Roadmap Prioritization Survey
  • 10:00 Presentation of Climacheck Case Study
  • 10:30 Presentation of Ezenics and Enterprise Plug n Play Diagnostics and Optimization for Smart Buildings
  • 11:30 HVAC Maintenance Behavior: the Customer and the Technician
  • 12:30 Adjourn
2012 afdd subcommittee accomplishments
2012 AFDD Subcommittee Accomplishments
  • Roadmap Reviewed and Survey Conducted
  • Title 24 Requirement Passed
  • SCE continued Testing
  • SPC 207 Launched
  • Developed Timeline of AFDD Advancements
  • Presentations
        • Daihung Yu: Virtual Sensors
        • Jon Douglas: Residential and Light Commercial Systems
        • Sean McCaffrey: Case Study
        • Brian Thompson: Ezenics
        • Kristin Heinemeier and Claudia Barriga: Maintenance Behavior
evaluating diagnostic protocols
Evaluating Diagnostic Protocols
  • PIER-Purdue Protocol Evaluator: accuracy test for FDD protocols
    • refrigerant charge
    • evaporator & condenser airflow
    • non-condensables
    • liquid line restrictions
    • compressor valve leakage

Application software/users manual in final development

    • CA T24 2008/2013 Installer/HERS RCA spec

“…performs poorly. Flagging faults in up to 46% of the unfaulted cases, misdiagnosing over 25% of cases with faults, and not detecting faults in 32-55% of the cases with faults present.”

fdd evaluator review
FDD Evaluator Review
  • Draft Diagnostic Protocol Evaluator report: January 2013




  • Tentative March 1, 2013 in-person meeting @ WCEC UC/Davis
    • Review evaluator
    • Review RCA issues
onboard priorities
OnBoard Priorities
  • Research FDD for Different System Types
  • Laboratory Methods of Test
  • Research into FDD on Thermostat
  • Research into Non-Microprocessor Units
  • Propose Reach Code FDD Requirements
  • Research into Fault Incidence
  • Cost Effectiveness Assessment and Dissemination
infield priorities
InField Priorities
  • Results from Diagnostic Protocol Evaluator Project
  • Benchmark and Assess Existing Protocols
  • Develop Program for Commercial Buildings
  • In-Field FDD and Maintenance Study
  • Conduct Human Behavior Projects
  • Work with OEMS to Develop Products
fdd case study presentation
FDD Case Study Presentation
  • ClimaCheck
          • Sean McCaffrey
manufacturer presentation
Manufacturer Presentation
  • Ezenics
  • Enterprise Plug n Play Diagnostics and Optimization for Smart Buildings
          • Brian Thompson
research presentation
Research Presentation
  • Understanding Maintenance Behavior
          • Customer: Claudia Barriga
          • Technician: Kristin Heinemeier
maintenance and real people

Maintenance and Real People

Kristin Heinemeier


Claudia Barriga


hvac behavioral research initiative 2011 2012 projects
  • “Understanding Maintenance Behavior in Residential and Light Commercial End Users.” (SCE HTSDA)
  • “Lab and Field Usability of In-Home Energy Displays” (SCE HTSDA)
  • “Behavior and AFDD” (SCE HTSDA – Q4 ‘12)
  • “Understanding Contractor and Technician Behavior” (SCE EM&V)
  • “Roadmap for Behavior and Human Factors Research in HVAC” (CEC/PIER IA)
  • “HVAC Technician Instrument Laboratory” (CEC/PIER CIEE)

Understanding Maintenance Behavior in

Residential and Light Commercial End Users

Claudia Barriga, Kristin Heinemeier, Laura Flynn, Dina Biscotti

Western Cooling Efficiency Center

Energy Efficiency Center

Southern California Edison

methods survey of residential end users
Methods Survey of Residential End Users
  • Sample
    • 270 Southern California Residents
    • Random Sample from SCE territory
  • Online Survey Residents
    • Knowledge about AC and maintenance
    • Attitudes towards AC and maintenance
    • Attitudes towards the environment
    • Preferences for FDD alert systems

I think this should be vertical and tagged at both ends, with color coding for bad stuff (red bad, green good)

methods focus groups of small business owners
Methods Focus Groups of Small Business Owners
  • Four Focus Groups in 2 SCE territory locations
  • 10-12 participants per group
  • Attitudes towards AC and maintenance
  • Attitudes towards Utilities Energy Efficiency Programs
  • Attitudes towards the Environment
key findings
Key Findings
  • Key finding 1: Small business owners are not convinced that regular HVAC maintenance saves money.
  • Recommendations: Show customers approximate (or best yet, actual) energy savings on bill that result from active participation in maintenance programs. Develop tools or techniques to field test AC unit efficiency before and after measures are implemented.
  • Key finding 2: Small business owners do not understand how to properly maintain HVAC equipment.
  • Recommendation: Create a guide for small businesses owners to use as a screening tool to find good contractors and as a double check for existing contractors.
  • Key Finding 3: Small business owners do not like complicated rebate programs.
  • Recommendation: Streamline rebate process or encourage contractors to take on the role of rebate collectors to minimize inconvenience to small business owners. Another idea is to provide the rebate as a credit on the utility bill.
maintenance technician observation study
Maintenance Technician Observation Study
  • Covertly Observed 13 Maintenance Technicians
  • Requested “service,” “maintenance,” and “energy tune-up”.
  • Two “faults”:
      • Airflow <250cfm/ton
      • Registers closed
  • Post-Observation Interview
technician observation conclusions
Technician Observation Conclusions
  • Technical performance was below the standards of ACCA 4 and “Quality Maintenance” goals.
  • Yet, technicians were more knowledgeable than their technical performance scores would suggest
  • This study does not provide evidence that lack of training or certification is creating the problem.
technician observation conclusions1
Technician Observation Conclusions
  • Technicians work hard to achieve their perceived company and customer goals:
  • Company Goals
      • Their company’s goal is to sell and accomplish as many service calls as possible in one day.
  • Customer Goals
      • Customers are interested in only two things: in the equipment working when needed, and in spending as little time and money as possible to achieve that goal.
technician observation conclusions2
Technician Observation Conclusions
  • These goals are closely tied both to the industry’s traditional practices around “maintenance services” and to common connotations of the word “maintenance”.
  • Industry transformation should include a way to make technicians see the non-traditional goals of quality technical performance as consistent with the goals of their employers and their customers.
technician observation conclusions3
Technician Observation Conclusions
  • A newcategory of service other than “maintenance” or “tune-up”, is required…perhaps “optimization”.
  • Solid data on benefits, both for the industry at large and for individual buildings, is key.
thank you
Thank you!
  • Mark Cherniack markc@newbuildings.org
  • Kristin Heinemeier kheinemeier@ucdavis.edu
  • Jerine Ahmed jerine.ahmed@sce.com
  • Anthony Hernandez anthony.hernandez@sce.com
  • KC Spivey kcs7@pge.com