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Clinical Chemistry

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  1. Clinical Chemistry Diane C. Jette BioMedica Diagnostics Inc.

  2. 1940 Plus Analyzer • Manual Photometer, simple to use. • Range -0.2 to 2.5 absorbance units. • Wavelengths: 340, 405, 505, 545,and 600 nm. • Onboard Printer and RS232 interface. • Preprogrammed for over 50 assays. • End-point and Kinetic assay capability. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  3. Chemistry Reagent Kits • Wide range of tests available. • Most reagents are liquid stable and ready for use. • Simple procedures and fast turn-around. • 1940 Plus preprogrammed for most commonly used tests. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  4. Acid Phosphatase Alkaline Phosphatase Alanine Aminotransferase Aspartate Aminotransferase Amylase Creatine Kinase Gamma Glutamyl Transferase Lactate dehydrogenase Lipase Indicator Enzymes BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  5. Acid Phosphatase (ACP) • Normal Range: 2.5 to 11.3 U/L • Increased levels ofProstate Acid Phosphatase in metastasized prostate cancer. • Increased levels of non-prostate Acid Phosphatase with Paget’s disease, hyperparathyroidism with skeletal involvement and in cancers which have invaded the bone. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  6. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) • Normal Range: 35 to 123 U/L • Increased levels with liver and bone disease. • Moderate elevations with Hodgkin’s disease, congestive heart failure, Fanconi’s syndrome, hyperparathyroidism, intestinal disease, and intra-abdominal bacterial infections. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  7. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) • Normal Range: 4 to 36 U/L • Increased levels with hepatic necrosis such as cirrhosis, carcinoma, viral or toxic hepatitis, and obstructive jaundice. • Increased levels also seen with extensive trauma and muscle disease, circulatory failure, shock, hypoxia, myocardial infarction and hemolytic disease. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  8. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) • Normal Range: 5 to 34 U/L • Increased levels with damage or disease to heart, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and erythrocytes tissues caused by myocardial infarction, viral hepatitis, liver necrosis, cirrhosis, and muscular dystrophy. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  9. Amylase (AMY) • Normal Range: 35 to 140 U/L • Increased Levels with acute pancreatitis, pancreatic duct obstruction, intra-abdominal disease, mumps and bacterial parotitis. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  10. Creatine Kinase (CKN) • Normal Range: 0 to 160 U/L • Increased levels with myocardial infarction 4 to 6 hours after onset of pain and peaking at 18 to 30 hours. • Above normal levels with muscular dystrophy, hyperthyroidism, pulmonary infarction and acute cerebrovascular disease. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  11. Gamma GlutamylTransferase (GGT) • Normal Range: 8 to 54 U/L • Increased levels with chronic alcoholism, liver disease, myocardial infarction with secondary liver damage, brain lesions, and Dilantin therapy. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  12. Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) • Normal Range: 80 to 285 U/L • Increased levels with myocardial infarction 8 to 12 hours after onset of pain with peak values at 4 to 5 days. • Moderate increase with liver disease, untreated pernicious anemia, megaloblastic anemia, renal disease, malignancy and muscular dystrophy. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  13. Lipase (LIP) • Normal Range: 0 to 62 U/L • Increased levels with acute pancreatitis, abdominal lesions, perforated peptic ulcer, intestinal obstruction and acute peritonitis. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  14. Lipid Derivatives • Apolipoprotein A-1 • Apolipoprotein B • Cholesterol • High Density Cholesterol • Triglicerides BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  15. Apolipoprotein A-1 (APA) • Normal Range: 107 to 206 mg/dL • Decreased values may indicate risk of coronary artery disease • Used with High Density Chloesterol, Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B values BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  16. Apolipoprotein B • Normal Range: 60 to 152 mg/dL • Decreased values may indicate risk of coronary artery disease • Used with High Density Chloesterol, Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein A1 values BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  17. Cholesterol (CHO) • Desired Range: < 200 mg/dL • Borderline High: 200 to 239 mg/dL • High: > 240 mg/dL • Indicator of liver function, intestinal absorption, risk of coronary heart disease, thyroid function and adrenal disease. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  18. High Density Cholesterol (HDL) • Desired Range: > 35 mg/dL • Decreased levels associated with increase risk of coronary heart disease or other atherosclerotic complications. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  19. Triglycerides (TRI) • Normal Range: 44 to 148 mg/dL • Increased values with nephrotic syndrome, coronary heart disease, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus and liver disease. • Decreased values with protein malnutrition, abetalipoproteinemia, hyperthyroidism and cachectic states. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  20. Bilirubin Creatinine Glucose Hemoglobin Total Protein Albumin Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Uric Acid Indicator Metabolites BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  21. Albumin (ALB) • Normal Range: 3.5 to 5.3 g/dL • Increased levels with dehydration. • Decreased levels with liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, malnutrition and protein-losing enteropathies. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  22. Bilirubin (BIL) • Normal Range: Total = 0.2 to 1.2 mg/dL • Normal Range: Direct = 0 to 0.3 mg/dL • Increased levelsof Total Bilirubin associated with liver disease and hemolytic disorders. • Increased levels of conjugated Bilirubin (Direct Bilirubin) associated with biliary obstruction and hepatocellular disease. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  23. Creatinine (CRT) • Normal Range: 0.4 to 1.4 mg/dL • Increased levels with substantially impaired renal function. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  24. Glucose (GLU) • Normal Range: 70 to 107 mg/dL • Increased levels with diabetes mellitus, hyperactive pituitary or adrenal glands. • Decreased levels with insulin overdosage, insulin secreting tumors, myxedema, hypopituitarism, hypoadrenalism and abnormal glucose absorption. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  25. Hemoglobin (HEM) • Normal Range: 11 to 18 g/dL • Increased values with polycythemia or dehydration. • Decreased values with anemia. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  26. Total Protein • Normal Range: 6.2 to 8.5 g/dL • Increased levels with dehydration or increase in one or more globular fractions. • Decreased values associated with low Albumin levels. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  27. Urea Nitrogen (BUN) • Normal Range: 7 to 18 mg/dL • Increased levels with renal disease, dehydration, diabetic coma, hypoadrenal crisis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and circulatory collapse. • Decreased levels with severe liver disease. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  28. Ammonia Calcium Carbon Dioxide Chloride Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Electrolytes BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  29. Ammonia (AMN) • Normal Range: 11 to 35 mol/L • Increased levels with Reye’s syndrome, other forms of liver cell damage and impending hepatic coma. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  30. Calcium (CAL) • Normal Range: 8.5 to 10.0 mg/dL • Increased levels with hyperparathyroidism, metastatic bone lesions and hypervitaminosis D. • Decreased levels with hypoparathyroidism, rickets, steatorrhea, nephritis and calcium-losing syndrome. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  31. Carbon Dioxide (CAR) • Normal Range: 23 to 34 mmol/L • Detection of acid-base imbalance. • Increased levels with metabolic alkalosis and respiratory acidosis. • Decreased levels with metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  32. Chloride (CHL) • Normal Range: 98 to 106 mEq/L • Decreased levels with gastrointestinal or salt-losing nephritis, Addison’s disease and metabolic acidosis. • Increased levels with dehydration, nephritis, renal obstruction, congestive heart failure and Cushing’s syndrome. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  33. Iron (IRO) • Normal Range: 60 to 150 g/dL • Increased levels with infectious hepatitis, hemochromatosis, hemosiderosis or terminal Hodgkin’s disease. • Decreased levels with anemia, chronic infection or cancer. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  34. Magnesium (MAG) • Normal Range: 1.3 to 2.5 mEq/L • Increased levels with uremia • Decreased levels with malabsorption, treatment of diabetic coma, postoperative patients receiving intravenous fluids, chronic and acute alcoholism and delirium tremens, chronic renal disease, congestive heart failure, pancreatitis, lupus erythematosus and hyperthyroidism. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  35. Phosphorus (PHO) • Normal Range: 2.4 to 4.8 mg/dL • Increased levels with chronic nephritis, hypoparathyroidism, hypervitaminosis D. • Decreased levels with rickets, osteromalacia, hyperparathyroidism and during treatment of diabetic coma. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  36. Potassium • Normal Range: 3.4 to 5.3 mEq/L • Elevated levels (hyperkalemia) with renal failure, dehydration, shock and adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease) • Decreasing levels with malnutrition, negative nitrogen balance, gastrointestinal fluid losses and hyper-activity of the adrenal cortex (Cushing’s Syndrome) BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  37. Sodium (SOD) • Normal Range: 135 to 155 mEq/L • Increased levels with excess water loss, hypergluco or mineralocorticoidism and inadequate water intake. • Decreased levels with increased water intake, and dilutional hyponatremia due to cardiac failure, liver failure, nephrotic syndrome, or malnutrition. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003

  38. Uric Acid (URI) • Normal Range: 2.5 to 7.7 mg/dL • Increasing levels with gout, leukemia. Polycythermia, familial idiopathic hyperuricemia, and conditions associated with decreased renal function. BioMedica Diagnostics Inc. / D. Jette / March 2003