slavery freedom and british empire in the colonial period
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Olaudah Equano 1789 The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano Challenges to image of Africa and Africans Represents expansion and freedom Atlantic World: Bridge between Old and New Worlds Flow of ideas, people, and goods

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slavery freedom and british empire in the colonial period
  • 1789 The Interesting Narrative of the Life of OlaudahEquiano
  • Challenges to image of Africa and Africans
  • Represents expansion and freedom
  • Atlantic World: Bridge between Old and New Worlds
    • Flow of ideas, people, and goods
    • Culture, laws and political institutions reflect European powers
    • 18th century- Height of slave trade
    • 1700-1775- 280,000 slaves out of 585,000 persons
  • Contradictions in British America
  • Liberty for whom?

Slavery, Freedom, and British Empire in the Colonial Period

1 slavery and empire
The World the Slaveholders Made
  • World Commerce-slave trade
  • Asiento- Spanish
  • Treaty of Utrecht 1713 (Dutch)
  • Atlantic Trade (First Lecture Notes)
  • Triangular Trade routes
  • Caribbean- seasoning process
  • Tobacco, Indigo, Rice, Sugar
  • Sir William Dunbar of Natchez, MS and Jamaica
  • Middle Passage: “the door of no return…”
  • 1762- Quaker Abolitionist John Woolman

#1: Slavery and Empire

africa and the slave trade
Gunpowder Empires (First Lecture Notes)
  • European supply of weapons to African societies
  • African Rulers Involvement in Triangular Slave Trade
  • Played Europeans against one another
  • Collected taxes from foreign merchants
  • Sold captives to European traders
  • Consequences (First Lecture Notes: Portuguese)
  • Disruption of African society
  • Cheap imports/traditional crafts
  • Militarized states
  • Loss of people weakened and distorted West Africa

Africa and the Slave Trade

slavery in the colonies
What is a slave society VS a society with slaves?
  • The Chesapeake
  • Tobacco-based plantation slavery
  • Consolidation of the Elite
  • South Carolina and Georgia
  • Rice-based plantation slavery
  • Indigenous slavery
  • Rice Kingdom
  • The Experiment in Georgia
  • New England and Middle Colonies
  • No plantations
  • Slavery and the Law
  • Enhancement of master’s power
  • Violence
  • Race as a social division
  • Free-Blacks in Virginia

Slavery in the Colonies

slavery in the north
Development of Free-Black Communities
  • Philadelphia
  • “In the Shadow of Slavery…” New York
  • Colonial Life
  • Work patterns
  • Differences of Law
    • Marraiges
    • Testify in Court
    • Own property/Pass along rights
  • Slavery in New York
  • Slavery in Philadelphia

Slavery in the North

slave culture
In the Nether World…
  • Charter generations (Ira Berlin)
  • Abduhl Rahman, Natchez, Mississippi
  • Process of creating cohesive culture
  • 19th century- identify as African Americans
  • Creoles: Slaves born in the New World
  • The World the Slave Made…
  • John Blassingame and Eugene Genovese
    • Slave quarters and Family
  • South Carolina and Georgia
    • The Gullah
  • Enslaved Women
    • Code Noir
  • Slave religion
    • Syncretic religions- Catholicism and Vodu. Candoble

Slave Culture

Resistance to Enslavement
  • Occurred
  • At point of Contact
  • During Middle Passage
  • Every facet of society, each day, in the New World
  • Forms
  • Overt: Rebellions and Uprisings, Active forms of resistance, use of religion, meetings, running away,), burning property
  • Covert: Poisoning, breaking tools, work-slow down, feigning sickness or ignorance, burning property
  • Creation of Maroon Communities: Latin America (Cimarron’s) Quilombo, Palmares
  • Hispaniola 1522- first documented slave revolt on island (Haiti/ St. Dominique)
  • Impact: dramatic increase after 1600- affected every part of Africa, introduced fire-arms:
  • Fostered conflict and violence/ growth of Dahomey- powerful slave raiding state/ upset cultural, political, and environmental features of Africa
  • The African Diaspora: Ashanti proverb,” the tree is not cut…”
  • Plantation Societies- introduction of cash crops
  • Sustaining African cultural traditions
    • African and Creole languages
    • Cultural traditions: foods, weaving, pottery, artwork
The Turning Point…The Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804
  • Boukman and a ceremony in Bois Caïman…
  • Situation in 1789: social hierarchy
    • “Declaration of Rights of Man”
    • Vincent Oge
  • Slave revolt against French masters
  • Key Leaders
  • Toussaint L’ Ouverture
  • Jean-Jacques Dessalines
  • Second and Third Phases of Revolution
  • Civil War, Economic and Political instability
  • Impact on Slavery in North America
  • Restrictive Laws
#2: Creating a British Empire:

Mechanisms for Freedom

  • British Patriotism
  • Symbolism
  • Economy
  • Religious
  • British Constitution
  • Identity and Concept of Liberty
  • Slavery and Liberty
  • Contempt of Foreigners
  • Language
  • General right to resist
Political Ideals in the Anglo-American World
  • Republican Liberty
  • Public and Social Quality
  • Virtue
  • “Country Party”
  • Britain: luxury and political manipulation
  • Liberal Freedom (Liberalism)
  • Private and Individual
  • John Locke
    • Opinions about women
  • Exclusions to universal right of liberty
Colonial Policies and the Public Sphere
  • The Right to Vote
  • Colonial Politics
  • Law verses Custom: Free Blacks
  • Political Culture
  • Competitive- Middle Colonies
  • Appointive verses elected
  • Property Qualifications
  • Wealth, Education, Social Prominence=right to public office
  • Colonial Government
  • Salutary neglect
  • The Rise of Assemblies
  • Pennsylvania
Politics and the Press in Public Space
  • Language and the Political Nation
  • Dominated by gentry
  • Expansion of public sphere
  • Literary, Philosophical, Scientific, Political
  • Benjamin Franklin and the Junto
    • American Philosophical Association
  • The Colonial Press
  • Market for printed material
  • Circulating libraries
  • Colonial newspapers
  • Freedom of Expression
  • Freedom of speech: 16th century Britain
  • Freedom of press: viewed as dangerous/discouraged
3 imperial rivalries historical snapshot women in the spanish territories
Dependents in Need of Protection…

Free and Enslaved Women

Marriage and Common-Law

Spanish Florida and Race

#3: Imperial RivalriesHistorical Snapshot: Women in the Spanish Territories