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Survey Research. Survey Research. Structured interview of: Sample of individuals in order to generalize to a larger population Survey modes: Face-to-face Paper-and-pencil RDD telephone Direct mail Internet. Advantages & Disadvantages. Generalizability - external validity

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survey research2
Survey Research
  • Structured interview of:
    • Sample of individuals in order to generalize to a larger population
  • Survey modes:
    • Face-to-face
    • Paper-and-pencil
    • RDD telephone
    • Direct mail
    • Internet
advantages disadvantages
Advantages & Disadvantages
  • Generalizability - external validity
  • Representativeness - unbiased sample
  • Customizability - wide variety of research questions
  • Time - 6 months from start to finish
  • Cost - Face-to-face vs. Telephone vs. Mail
  • Hard to find facilities and experts
  • Causality - Non-experimental design
misconceptions
Misconceptions
  • Single time-point >>> Longitudinal, Panel Designs
  • Must be face-to-face >>> Can use telephone, mail
  • Interviewers read questions >>> Self-administered
  • Individuals as unit of observation >>> Family
  • Non-experimental >>> Can embed experiments
  • Atheoretical >>> Can test hypotheses

Surveys are a very flexible research technique

reliability of survey research
Reliability of Survey Research
  • Stability:
    • In panel designs, test-retest correlations of same respondents’ answers
  • Reproducibility:
    • Open-ended querstions:
      • Agreement between coders
  • Internal Consistency:
    • In testing scales, the homogeneity of items
validity of survey research
Validity of Survey Research
  • Face:
    • Do items capture concepts?
  • Content:
    • Are relevant dimensions represented by indicators?
  • Convergent:
    • Are multiple indicators correlated?
  • Divergent:
    • Do indicators allow us to differentiate from other concepts?
    • Do indicators differentiate between distinct concept dimensions?
stages in survey research
Stages in Survey Research
  • General Research Questions
  • Specific Research Questions
  • Sampling Design
  • Questionnaire Development
  • Interviewer Training
  • Pretest
  • Fieldwork - Test
  • Content Coding
  • Analysis Computation
  • Report Writing
questionnaire construction
Questionnaire Construction
  • Length:
    • :30 for telephone, longer for personal/self-administered
  • Ordering:
    • Put an easy question first, funnel toward specific
    • Save sensitive question for the end
  • Transitions:
    • Ease them from one section to another
  • Probes:
    • Further information, elaboration
training interviewers
Training Interviewers
  • Two parts:
    • 1. Basic interviewing skills
    • 2. Specific interview schedule, questionnaire
motivations and barriers
Motivations and Barriers
  • Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivations:
    • expression, boredom, loneliness, politeness, curiosity, loyalty
  • Barriers:
    • Suspicion, fear, inadequacy, privacy, distractions, time to answer, etc.
  • Overcoming Barriers:
    • confidentiality, listening, probing, repeating, focus, and practice