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Survey Research. Presented by Ani Kitiashvili Department of Psychology Tbilisi State University. Private Eye political commentary and humor weekly. Characteristics. Survey is most widely used research technique in social sciences

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survey research
Survey Research

Presented by Ani Kitiashvili

Department of Psychology

Tbilisi State University

characteristics
Characteristics
  • Survey is most widely used research technique in social sciences
  • Data collected from surveys ranges from physical counts and frequencies to attitudes and opinions.
survey data is used to
Survey data is used to:
  • To answer questions
  • To assess needs.
  • To set goals.
  • To analyze trends across time.
  • To describe what exists, in what amount, and in what context and etc. . . . .
focus of survey research questions
Focus of survey research questions
  • Behaviors
  • Attitudes/beliefs/opinions
  • Characteristics
  • Expectations
  • Self classification
  • Knowledge
five kinds of measures
Five kinds of measures
  • What kind of informationmight be measured
  • - What people say that they do (behaviors)
  • – What people think is true (beliefs)
  • – What people are (attributes)
  • – What people say they want (their attitudes)
  • (Dillman, Don A. (1978). Mail and Telephone Survyes: The Total Design Method. NYC: John)
four stages of the survey research method
Four stages of the survey research method

1. Design and Planning.

2. Data collection

3. Data Analysis

4. Write up and communication

stages
Stages …
  • Design and planning stage.
    • Decide on type of survey to use and type of respondent.
      • Type of survey method.
        • Mail.
        • Telephone.
        • Face-to-face.
        • E-mail
      • Type of respondent.
        • Adults over 18 years of age.
        • Native speakers only or all languages.
stages9
Stages …
  • Develop the survey instrument (questionnaire or interview schedule).
    • Organize the question sequence.
    • Design the questionnaire layout.
    • Develop a system to record answers.
    • Pilot test the questionnaire
    • Train the interweavers
stages10
Stages …
    • Drawing the sample.
      • Define the population of your interest
      • Decide on sample size and sample type
      • Develop the sampling frame.
      • Select the sample.
  • Data collection stage.
    • Contact the respondents.
    • Ask the questions and record the answers.
    • Thank the respondent for cooperating.
    • End data collection.
stages11
Stages …
  • Data analysis
    • Code data.
    • Enter data into a computer.
    • Statistical analysis.
    • Draw conclusions.
  • Write up and communication
    • Summarize your results and incorporate them into the results section of your report/thesis/paper.
guidelines to conducting a survey
Guidelines to conducting a survey
  • Define the purpose and scope of the survey in explicit terms.
  • Avoid using an existing survey instrument.
  • designing a survey instrument
  • Field test the survey instrument to spot ambiguous or redundant items and to arrive at a format leading to ease of data tabulation and analysis.
guidelines
Guidelines…
  • Use structured questions as possible as many as opposed to unstructured and open-ended ones for uniformity of results and ease of analysis.
  • Avoid questions that are redundant or have obvious answers.
  • Avoid loaded or biased questions by field testing and involving others in the wording process.
  • Keep the final product as brief, simple, clear as possible.
  • Think out the analysis needs to insure the clarity and comprehensiveness of the instrument.
limitations of the survey method
Limitations of the survey method
  • May only tap respondents who are accessible and cooperative.
  • Surveys arouse “response sets” such as acquiescence or a proneness to agree with positive statements or questions.
  • Over-rater or under-rater bias - the tendency for some respondents to give consistently high or low ratings.