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Survey Research. Presented by Ani Kitiashvili Department of Psychology Tbilisi State University. Private Eye political commentary and humor weekly. Characteristics. Survey is most widely used research technique in social sciences

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survey research
Survey Research

Presented by Ani Kitiashvili

Department of Psychology

Tbilisi State University

  • Survey is most widely used research technique in social sciences
  • Data collected from surveys ranges from physical counts and frequencies to attitudes and opinions.
survey data is used to
Survey data is used to:
  • To answer questions
  • To assess needs.
  • To set goals.
  • To analyze trends across time.
  • To describe what exists, in what amount, and in what context and etc. . . . .
focus of survey research questions
Focus of survey research questions
  • Behaviors
  • Attitudes/beliefs/opinions
  • Characteristics
  • Expectations
  • Self classification
  • Knowledge
five kinds of measures
Five kinds of measures
  • What kind of informationmight be measured
  • - What people say that they do (behaviors)
  • – What people think is true (beliefs)
  • – What people are (attributes)
  • – What people say they want (their attitudes)
  • (Dillman, Don A. (1978). Mail and Telephone Survyes: The Total Design Method. NYC: John)
four stages of the survey research method
Four stages of the survey research method

1. Design and Planning.

2. Data collection

3. Data Analysis

4. Write up and communication

Stages …
  • Design and planning stage.
    • Decide on type of survey to use and type of respondent.
      • Type of survey method.
        • Mail.
        • Telephone.
        • Face-to-face.
        • E-mail
      • Type of respondent.
        • Adults over 18 years of age.
        • Native speakers only or all languages.
Stages …
  • Develop the survey instrument (questionnaire or interview schedule).
    • Organize the question sequence.
    • Design the questionnaire layout.
    • Develop a system to record answers.
    • Pilot test the questionnaire
    • Train the interweavers
Stages …
    • Drawing the sample.
      • Define the population of your interest
      • Decide on sample size and sample type
      • Develop the sampling frame.
      • Select the sample.
  • Data collection stage.
    • Contact the respondents.
    • Ask the questions and record the answers.
    • Thank the respondent for cooperating.
    • End data collection.
Stages …
  • Data analysis
    • Code data.
    • Enter data into a computer.
    • Statistical analysis.
    • Draw conclusions.
  • Write up and communication
    • Summarize your results and incorporate them into the results section of your report/thesis/paper.
guidelines to conducting a survey
Guidelines to conducting a survey
  • Define the purpose and scope of the survey in explicit terms.
  • Avoid using an existing survey instrument.
  • designing a survey instrument
  • Field test the survey instrument to spot ambiguous or redundant items and to arrive at a format leading to ease of data tabulation and analysis.
  • Use structured questions as possible as many as opposed to unstructured and open-ended ones for uniformity of results and ease of analysis.
  • Avoid questions that are redundant or have obvious answers.
  • Avoid loaded or biased questions by field testing and involving others in the wording process.
  • Keep the final product as brief, simple, clear as possible.
  • Think out the analysis needs to insure the clarity and comprehensiveness of the instrument.
limitations of the survey method
Limitations of the survey method
  • May only tap respondents who are accessible and cooperative.
  • Surveys arouse “response sets” such as acquiescence or a proneness to agree with positive statements or questions.
  • Over-rater or under-rater bias - the tendency for some respondents to give consistently high or low ratings.