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Mining - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Mining

Miningis the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an ore body, vein or (coal) seam. Materials recovered by mining include bas metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock salt and potash. Any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory, is usually mined

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The goal of coal mining is to economically remove coal from the ground.

Coal is valued for its energy content, and since the 1880s is widely used to generate electricity. Steel and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production

Coal mining

Coal mining

coal mining
Coal mining

Technological advancements have made coalmining today more productive than it has ever been.

To keep up with technology and to extract coal as efficiently as possible modern mining personnel must be highly skilled and well trained in the use of complex, state-of-the-art instruments and equipment.

Productive coal mining 

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Coal mining can result in a number of adverse effects on the environment. Surface mining of coal completely eliminates existing vegetation, destroys the genetic soil profile, displaces or destroys wildlife and habitat, degrades air quality, alters current land uses, and to some extent permanently changes the general topography of the area mined, This often results in a scarred landscape with no scenic value.

ENVIRONMENT IMPACTS

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PHOSPHATES

. A phosphate, an inorganic chemical, is a salt of phosphoric acid.

.In organic chemistry, a phosphate, or organophosphate, is an ester of phosphoric acid. Organic phosphates are important in biochemistry and biogeochemistry or ecology.

. Inorganic phosphates are mined to obtain phosphorus for use in agriculture and industry.

Phosphates layers 

phosphates
phosphates

.Phosphate ore is found from 15 to 50 feet below the ground, generally in equal parts of sand, clay and phosphate rock.

. The Phosphate Class is made up of minerals with a basic chemical unit of tetrahedral (AO4) groups with a negative three (-3) charge. The A can be either Phosphorus, Arsenic, Vanadium or Antimony. The basic chemical unit can be combined with metal ions on a one to one ratio or usually in more complex combinations with other ions such as hydroxide groups (OH), uranyl groups (UO2), a halogen or even water molecules. The typical phosphate is vitreous to dull, often strongly colored, above average in density, average in hardness (4-7) and low in index of refraction unless ions such as lead are present.

hosphate class 

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Phosphates are irreplaceable for human health and all living organisms, essential in bones, teeth, genes, proteins, biological cycling of energy, photosynthesis …The phosphate used in detergents (STPP) is safe, indeed it is authorised fori, and widely used in, human food preparations. The only concern about phosphates is “eutrophication”: because phosphates are a key nutrient for plants, too much phosphate in water can lead to excessive growth of plants and algae (“phytoplankton”).

Environment impact

Phosphates are SAFE and NATURAL

manganese
manganese

Manganese is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature (often in combination with iron), and in many minerals. As a free element, manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels

manganese 

phosphates1
phosphates

Manganese minerals are widely distributed; oxides, silicates, and carbonates are the most common. The discovery of large quantities of manganese nodules on the floor of the oceans may become a source of manganese. These nodules contain about 24% manganese, together with many other elements in lesser abundance.

It is gray-white, resembling iron, but is harder and very brittle. The metal is reactive chemically, and decomposes cold water slowly. Manganese is used to form many important alloys. In steel, manganese improves rolling and forging qualities, strength, toughness, stiffness, wear resistance, hardness, and hardenability.

manganese iron, and steel 

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Manganese compounds are less toxic than those of other widespread metals such as nickeland copper. However, exposure to manganese dusts and fumes should not exceed the ceiling value of 5 mg/m3 even for short periods because of its toxicity level. Manganese poisoning has been linked to impaired motor skills and cognitive disorders.

precautions