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Mining - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Mining By 1852, mining operations were well under way on the American River near Sacramento. http://www.smithsonianmag.si.edu/smithsonian/issues98/jan98/mining_jpg.html Open Pit Mine http://imcg.wr.usgs.gov/usbmak/fig03.gif Commonly mined materials and end uses

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slide2

By 1852, mining operations were well under way on the American River near Sacramento.

http://www.smithsonianmag.si.edu/smithsonian/issues98/jan98/mining_jpg.html

slide6

In the solution mining method of extraction, water is forced under pressure into a cavity which forms in the underground salt bed, as the salt dissolves. This turns the water into brine containing about 30% salt.

The saturated raw brine is pumped to the purification plant where calcium, magnesium and other impurities are removed, prior to the evaporation process.

http://www.saltinfo.com/salt%20production4.html

slide10

http://www.mcintoshengineering.com/Services/mineengineering.htmhttp://www.mcintoshengineering.com/Services/mineengineering.htm

slide11

The illustration above shows a drift type of underground mine. A mine opening is made at the same elevation as the coals seam and mining is conducted using typically either longwall mining or room and pillar mining with continuous mining equipment. Coal is transported to the surface by conveyor belts. This method of mining is used when the coal seam outcrops at the surface, or when a bench has to be constructed on a mountain side to mine the coal.  

http://66.113.204.26/mining/coal/undergnd_mining.htm

slide12

The illustration shows a shaft type of underground mine. A mine opening is made by sinking a shaft down to the elevation of the coal seam. Mining is conducted using typically either longwall mining or room and pillar mining with continuous mining equipment. Coal is transported to the surface by a skip hoist. This is the most expensive type of underground mine to build and operate. This method of mining coal is usually utilized when the coal seam is deep below the surface.  

slide13

The illustration above shows a slope type of underground mine. A mine opening is made by tunneling from the surface down to the elevation of the coal seam. Mining is conducted using typically either longwall mining or room and pillar mining with continuous mining equipment. Coal is transported to the surface by conveyor belts. This method of mining coal is usually utilized when the coal seam is not far from the surface, and the outcrop of the coal seam is not exposed.  

slide14

Reclamation plans include many of the following concerns: drainage control, preservation of top soil, segregation of waste material, erosion and sediment control, solid waste disposal, control of fugitive dust, regrading, and restoration of waste and mine areas. The plan must also consider the effects of mine subsidence, vibration (induced by mining, processing, transport, or subsidence), and impact on surface water and groundwater. These environmental items often dictate the economics of a planned mining operation and determine its viability.

acid mine drainage
Acid Mine Drainage

Pyritic mine tailings leach acid mine drainage originating in a large part to the metabolic activity of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans(5).  This bacterial microbe has been implicated as the major culprit in the pollution of streams emanating from active and abandoned mining operations.  Abiotic oxidation of pyrite is slow.  T. ferrooxidans catalyzes the oxidation of FeS2, producing ferric ions and hydrogen ions. 

http://www.mines.edu/fs_home/jhoran/ch126/microbia.htm

amd acid mine drainage
AMD (Acid Mine Drainage)

http://www.mines.edu/fs_home/jhoran/ch126/amd.htm

slide18

Mining, particularly gold mining, is an increasing threat to the world's rainforests and to forest communities.

http://www.rainforestweb.org/Rainforest_Destruction/Mining/

slide19

During the lifetime of the average American, he or she will use:

http://imcg.wr.usgs.gov/usbmak/thisis.html

  • 1,600 kg (3,600 lb) of aluminum
  • 360 kg (800 lb) of zinc
  • 11,300 kg (25,000 lb) of clay
  • 25,400 kg (56,000 lb) of steel
  • 360 kg (800 lb) of lead
  • 680 kg (1,500 lb) of copper
  • 12,200 kg (27,000 lb) of salt
  • More than 226,000 kg (500,000 lb) of coal
  • More than 453,000 kg (1 million lb) of stone, sand, gravel, and cement.
possible science fair experiment
Possible Science Fair Experiment
  • http://www.mines.edu/fs_home/jhoran/ch126/amd.htm