Social learning and media U-learning Informal learning M-learning Distributed learning Learning “theory” Micro learning Huang Yue The 3rd Presentation (Oct.17, 2011) Connectivism E-learning Connectionism Learner Autonomy Social learning Base on, build upon, combine the bestof this and that
Chinese proverb • Tell me, I forget. • Show me, I remember. • Involve me, I understand.
A Review of Learning TheoryLEI Mo, Journal of Education Study Key points • Review of cell learning theory to get learning mechanism • Review of learning theory to get object experience Comments • Help me to have a primary sort of learning theory and knowledge • Can’t involve some modern and new learning theory
A Study of The Rise, Fall and Revelation of BehaviorismSUIMei-rong, GAO Feng-qiang , Pan Guang-hua, Journal of Shandong Education College Key points • Analyze the internal, external origin of the rise of behaviorism • Develop of behaviorism • Analyze the fall of behaviorism from the philosophy, immanent contradiction and challenge of humanism and cognition • Emphasis on the understanding of humanity by Bandura’s social learning theory Comments • Help me to realize the weakness of behaviorism • Think about the difference of behaviorism and humanism by comparison • Treat social learning theory as a new start of behaviorism
A Review of Bandura’s Social Learning TheoryLi Jing-jing, Journal of Shayang Teachers College 2009, 10(3) Key points • Observational learning and learning process • Triadic reciprocal determinism (behavior, cognition, environment) • Self-regulating and Self-efficacy • Positive meaning and limit Comments • Have a clear outline of the context of social learning theory • Be inspired by observational learning, self-efficacy and the factors. (E.g. design of game module and tasks)
Cognitive Factors in Bandura’s Social Theory of learningCHENG Xiao-guang, Journal of Liaoning Normal University (Social Sciences Edition) 2003, 26(6) Key points • Review the difference of social learning theory and behaviorism(4 points) • Develop of social learning theory • Context of social learning • Inspiration (Modeling, Self-efficacy and self-regulating) Comments • Have some different words to describe the same subject (E.g. learning process: Attention, Representation, Behavioral Production, Motivation VS Attentional processes, Retention processes, Motoric reproduction process and Incentive or motivational processes)
Rogers’ Humanistic Educational Thought and Its SignificanceZENG De-qi, Journal of Sichuan Normal University (Social Sciences Edition) 2003, 30(1) Key points • Humanistic Educational Thought • Educational goal • Learner • Teaching • Teacher • Significance----The principle of attitude and belief to learners Comments • Learner-centered means treat every learner as an unique individual • Everybody has his/her internal motivation for learning • Significant learning
Principle of Instructional Design on HumanismWEN Dong, YANG Jiu-ming, Audio-visual Education Study Key points • Emphasis on student-centered and individual significant learning • Create real problem situation • Make full use of various learning resources • Open learning process • Collaborative learning • Emotional interaction between facilitator and learner Comments • How to supply a proper learning way for different individual • Game could involve the real problem situation • How to construct the resources for the player of game • How to construct a collaborative environment in a game
Discussion on the theory of humanistic learning and its impact on the teaching of design inspirationXU Sui, Technological Development of Enterprise 2008, 27(12) Key points • Humanism learning theory • View point of learning • Nonsignificant and significant learning • Pedagogics • Be a facilitator, not a teacher • Inspiration • Change educational view • Respect personality • Inspire and maintain motivation • Harmonic relationship between facilitator and learner Comments • Probably too Idealize especially when there are many learners, but still have significance for me to think about traveler-centered or player-centered
Summary of Constructivism Learning TheoryCHEN Wei, Academic Exchange Key points • Psychology origin of constructivism learning theory • Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development • Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development • Basic viewpoints of Constructivism • Knowledge is one kind of explanation and suppose, it isn’t a final answer • Learners build upon current and past knowledge to construct new ideas or concept • Teaching is a transform rather than a transfer of knowledge • Inspiration • Teaching idea • Teaching activity Comments • Learning is social and occurs from interactions between people in the environment
The Perplexity of Constructivism Learning TheoryTAN Ding-liang, WANG Hua-rong, Journal of Nanjing Normal University (Social Science) Key points • Not only the individuality, but also the universality should be seek for knowledge • Student play a role of body, but a teacher should not be despised • Emphasizing the significance construct doesn’t mean refusing significance accept • Emphasizing the creation of situation doesn’t mean refusing abstract and summary Comments • Let the learner decide to accept or construct, we supply the possibility and suggestion
Key Comparison between Constructivism, Humanism and CognitivismYE Zeng-bian, Modern Distance Education Reserach Key points • About knowledge • About nature and process of learning • About learning condition • Inspiration Comments • There is no one learning theory could explain all the learning • Design learning should base on the learner’s demand and ability, learning content and target
Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital AgeGeorge Siemena, http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm Key points • Introduction (some significant trends in learning), background • Limitations of Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism) • An Alternative Theory (I store my knowledge in my friends & Chaos) • Networks, Small Worlds, Weak Ties • Connectivism • the integration of principles explored by chaos, network, and complexity and self-organization theories • Learning is focused on connecting specialized information sets, and the connections that enable us to learn more and more important than our current state of knowing • Principles of connectivism • Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions • Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources • Learning may reside in non-human appliances • Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known • Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning • Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill • Decision-making is itself a learning process. • Knowledge needs to be connected with the right people in the right context • Social network analysis • Implications • Conclusion • The pipe is more important than the content within the pipe Comments • Be very useful to understand the learning theory, especially for the digital age. It explains the distributed learning and gives the general guide to my design------ connect with the right people in the right context.
From Connectionism to Connectivism: A New Orientation of Learning Theory WANG You-mei, ZHU Zhi-ting, China Audio-visual Education Study Key points • Connectionism: from behaviorism to cognitivism • Connectivism: connection viewpoint of digital age • An analysis and comparison framework • Revolution in the connection between environment and individual • Distributed resources • Social nature of learning • Group cognition and sharing Comments • Helps me to understand last journal and emphasizes the social nature, group cognition and sharing. Probably, learning design should based on social network.
A Study on Building Strategies of Network Learning Community Based on Connetivism Zhang Hao-feng, LI Chun-yan, Software Guide( Instructional Technology) Key points • Network learning community under the traditional learning theory • Connotation analysis of network learning community • Connetivism anaysis • Building strategies • Breed one or several core nodes • Keep the smooth connection within nodes • Clear the expression of information • Make sure the availability of information and promote the evolution of it Comments • It reminds me the significance of core nodes and smooth connection with them. How to breed them? Is there any tips or rules to keep such connection?
Growing Up Digitalhow the web changes work, education, and the ways people learn John Seely Brown, United States Distance Learning Association: USDLA Journal Vol.16: No.2 Key points • A new medium • Digital learners • Creating knowledge • Case: repairing photocopiers • Building knowledge assets • Toward a learning ecology • Regional learning Comments • Informal learning is more effective even in a formal organization. People would like to have it than formal learning. • If we could build a learning ecology, knowledge could breed and grow up ecologically.
Discussion of Essential Factor Model on Connetivism Network Collaborative LearningZHANG Li, China Audio-visual Education Study Key points • Background • Introduction to Connectivism • Network collaborative learning under the view of connectivism • Essential factor model • Network ecology • Factor to effect connection • Trust • Sharing view • Homogeny and neterogeny • Open • Cohesion and bonding • Connective amount • Active level • relevance • Promotion strategy • Create network ecological environment • Promote node’s value • Find and raise core nodes • Keep information flow smooth • Use cluster mechanism to improve the connective odds between relative nodes • Activity and task in collaborative community • Encourage sharing to promote public knowledge in collaborative community Comments • Essential factor model and promotion strategy is quite useful for me to connect such mind to the design of resources
The Theoretical Roots of Learner AutonomyQI Hong-bo, Shandong Foreign Language Education Key points • Implication and strategy of Learner Autonomy • Be responsible for learning by themselves • To decide the goal, methodology and evaluation by themselves • The individual-centered approach • The group-centered approach • The project-centered approach • Theoretical Roots • Humanism ( Maslow and Rogers) • Cognitivism (Bruner and Ausubel) • Constructivism (Piaget and Vygotsky) • Conclusion Comments • Learning Autonomy isn’t just a learning ability, it should be a educational goal, idea and strategy. • It explains why we should have learner-centered
The Informal Learning-New Field of Study and Practice in E-learningYU Sheng-quan, Mao Fang, Audio-visual Education Study Key points • Informal learning follows the development of times • Definition and feature of informal learning • Self start, control and responsible for • Social learning resources • Various forms • More collaborative • Theoretical Roots • Knowledge management and tacit knowledge • Social Constructivism and Social Constructionism) • Typical form • Action-learning • Network learning • Guide • Learning Partner • Collaboration • Promotion and implementation strategy of informal learning Comments • Social network is useful to informal learning. People online could have a more motivation for informal learning. How to construct the situation and connection within resources would effect their learning interest , efficiency and outcome
The Microlearning-Applied Model of Informal LearningZHU Zhi-ting, Zhang Hao, GU Xiao-qing, China Audio-visual Education Key points • Informal learning and formal learning • Informal learning is a important learning form rather than a complementary learning • Microcontent, microterminal and micromedia • Text, image, audio, video, link, email, small game etc • Ipad, Iphone etc • Twitter, Blog, Podcast etc • Concept and background of Microlearning • New learning based on micro content and media • Theory base: Connectivism ( Siemens) • Popular culture • Applied Model • Simply interface and low technology obstacle • Adapt learner’s Discontinuous Partial Attention • Structured micro content • Inspire random learning Comments • Realize and accept Discontinuous Partial Attention and random learning, probable it means more thinking on engagement of visitors or learners. • Microlearning belongs to humanism • Proper way for classification, learner can choose and decide it. • How to structure micro content?
Mobile learning and Its Theoretical FoundationsYE Chen-lin, XU Fu-meng, Open Education Study Key points • M-learning and M-education • A new learning way ( Anytime, Anywhere, Anydevice) • Theoretical Foundations • Informal learning • Situation cognizing and learning • Contextual learning • Action learning • Experiential learning Comments • Connect this journal to the real situation in China and think about which kind of people would like to use mobile to access information, resources and services • Learning is socialized and lifelong • Learning could be informal, and could occur at anytime if you have a mobile
Mobile learning in review: Opportunities and challenges for learners, teachers, and institutionsRachel Cobcroft, Stephen Towers, Proceedings Online Learning and Teaching (OLT) Conference 2006, page pp.21-30 Key points • Review of existing literature • The changing learning& teaching landscape • Learner changes • Technological changes • Institutional changes • Social software, social networks: social construction of learning • Creative, collaborative, critical, and communicative engagement of learners • Towards an m-learning conceptual framework • Is it significantly different from current theories of classroom, workplace or lifelong learning? • Does it account for the mobility of learners? • Does it cover both formal and informal learning? • Does it theorise learning as a constructive and social process? • Does it analyze learning as a personal and situated activity mediated by technology? Comments • Connect this journal to the real situation in China and think about which kind of people would like to use mobile to access information, resources and services • Consider the conceptual framework in the future design of learning
Discussion on the Theory of Distributed LearningLIU Dong-xue, Modern Educational Technology Key points • What’s distributed Learning • Distributed resources, not have a central resource • Structure of distributed learning • Feature of distributed learning • Distributed resources • Learner-centered • Teacher is resource as same as content Comments • Can all the existing tourism resources be distributed resources • How to construct these distributed resources
Revolution in Learning and G1:1ZHU Zhi-ting, HU Hai-ming, GU Xiao-qing, China Audio-visual Education Study Key points • Introduction of G1:1 • Revolution • Learner is the network nod of learning activity • U-learning • Microlearning Environment • Random Learning Environment • Chance and challenge • Technological completion • Educational and social renovation • Transfer teaching technology to learning technology Comments • U-learning, Microlearning and Random learning environment could be blended. And it reminds me of adapting learner’s Discontinuous Partial Attention.
A Review of Ubiquitous LearningPAN Ji-xin, LEI Yao-zeng, CHEN Lu-lu, SHI Hua, Journal of Distance Education Key points • Research status • Overview in Ubiquitous learning • The reason and related concept • Definition and connotation( Anything, Anytime, Anywhere, Anyone, Anydevice) • Feature of U-learning • Theoretic foundation • Humanism • Cognitivism • Constructivism • Post-modern learning theory • Situational cognitive learning theory Comments • Demand, real-time, optimum, interactive and situated learning could be the design principle.
A Study of Learning Resource Evolution in Ubiquitous Learning EnvironmentAnalysis of some key issues and the solutionsYANGXian-min , YU Sheng-quan, Program of National Natural Science Fund (No.61073100) Key points • Introduction • Out of order in the open knowledge community, E.g. Wikipedia • Resources of e-learning can’t meet the demand of continual development of U-learning • Concept and model of learning resource evolution • Learning resources could complete and adjust their content and structure to meet the dynamic and personal demand of learners • Evolution of content, relevance • Key problem and solution • Modeling semantics of learning resources • Dynamic semantics relevance of learning resources • Dynamic semantics aggregation of learning resources • Well-organized revolution of learning resources Comments • Show the mathematical thinking of learning resource. • Have an initial outline about it • Construction of learning resources will decide the learning process and way
Learning Resource Designing and Sharing in Ubiquitous Learning Environment-The concept and Architecture of Learning CellYU Shengquan, YANG Xiamin, & CHENG Gang, Open Education Research Key points • U-learning and new demand of resources construction • How to construct ubiquitous space of learning resources • How to meet the personal learning demand of infinite group • How to realize the dynamic produce and evolution of learning resources • How to support the situational cognition of informal learning • How to realize the natural polymerize of various microcontent • How to share the social network and social cognition network in the learning process • Concept and structure of learning cell • Learning cell and revolution of learning pattern • Revolution on publishing and sharing Comments • To design and structure Learning cell is important to U-learning. Learning cell should be co-creation, open, connective, order, developmental, smart, micro and self-track
Summary • Game position: Tourism game could be informal learning • Player engagement: Players have different purpose and demand. Such difference should be considered to the level of engagement • Player community: Players could constructdifferent network collaborative community according to their demand, ability, social role and relationship. • Open game: Can we design a microgame and put it in the internet as a core node? Then players could connect each other through it and have some co-creation for it even design some new parts. For this meaning, it’s also a ecological game. • Open platform: game situation, role play, real or virtual trade, experience sharing, information seeking • Social network: make full use of it