Yaron Oz (Tel-Aviv University) String Theory (HEP2005) Outline Challenges Basics of String Theory The Gauge/Gravity Correspondence Black Holes in String Theory Experimental Signatures Reviews SUPERSTRING THEORY. VOL. 1 and 2
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By Michael B. Green (Queen Mary, U. of London), J.H. Schwarz (Caltech), Edward Witten (Princeton U.),Cambridge, Uk: Univ. Pr. ( 1987).
Published in Phys.Rept.323:183-386,2000.
where is the Planck
. The effects of gravity
grow at high energies.
have a strength of the order of the
standard model interactions.
The traditional (natural) quantum gravity scale is the Planck energy:
The effective coupling is .
At the energy scale of the
coupling is strong and we meet divergences in perturbation theory.
This signals new physics.
A theory that reduces to generalrelativity at low energies, and where quantum computations can be made to any required order.
The theory should explain fundamental
issues such as the black hole entropy.
singularity and its resolution.
A theory that will explain the standardmodel structure, gauge group and couplings, three generations and
the standard model parameters.
Question: what is the scale ?
particles with mass being the energy
of the oscillations.
Massless particles: include gauge bosons, gravitons, fermions.
Massive particles: .
only the massless particles.
(Riccardo Rattazzi’s talk)
Strings + Supersymmetry = Superstrings
one parameter: the string scale .
The string coupling is a modulus: the VEV of the dilaton field.
as massless scalars.
the string scale and the compactification scale lie
just below the Planck scale at energies
of order , far beyond experiment.
This is modified when string theory
is strongly coupled.
It exchanges elementary particles with
solitons (magnetic monopoles).
S-dual to an elevendimensional theory.
At strong coupling a new dimension
is opened up !
number of solutions describing different worlds. How ours is picked?
is dual to gauge theories in one lower dimension (on the boundary).
two dimensionless expansion parameters:
The parameters are related by:
One dominates the string (gravity) action at low temperature and the other at high temperature.
(see Lance Dixon’s talk)
space-time, which when crossed does not allow a return.
Due to quantum effects, black holes emit thermal radiation: