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Islam (Intro Video). SOL WHI. 8. Muhammad. Born around 570 CE in a town called Mecca. Considered to be the greatest PROPHET of Allah (God) by Muslims . Founder of the Muslim religion of Islam. Pictures of Muhammad and Allah.

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  • Born around 570 CE in a town called Mecca.
  • Considered to be the greatest PROPHET of Allah (God) by Muslims.
  • Founder of the Muslim religion of Islam.
pictures of muhammad and allah
Pictures of Muhammad and Allah

God is supposed to be the focus, not Muhammad or Jesus or anyone else.

  • At the age of 40, Muhammad had a vision.
    • The Angel Gabriel told him to be the messenger of Allah (God) and spread the message of Islam.
    • Islam means submission – submission to Allah (God).
  • Muhammad began preaching the teachings of Islam.
  • The first person to convert to Islam was Muhammad’s wife, Khadija.
  • Once Muhammad began preaching about Islam, people began feeling threatened and ran Muhammad out of Mecca.
  • In 622, he fled to Medina.
    • This is known as the hijra.
      • first year of the Muslim calendar.
  • While in Medina, Muhammad found believers and Islam spread rapidly.
  • In 630, Muhammad led the people of Medina into Mecca.
  • There they would conquer Mecca and bring Islam to Mecca.
  • Muhammad would die in 632 after a brief illness.
historical turning points
Historical Turning Points
  • Slavery was not based on race.
  • Muslim conquest of Jerusalem and Damascus.
    • Trading centers before rise of Islam.
  • Islamic capital moved to Baghdad.
    • Capital moved several times, Medina to Damascus.
  • Muslim defeat at the Battle of Tours. 732 Charles Martel halted the spread of Islam into Western Europe.
historical turning points1
Historical Turning Points
  • Fall of Baghdad to the Mongols.
    • Ferocious assault on the city in 1258. They burned buildings and slaughtered 50,000 inhabitants, including a caliph.
    • Caliph: Islamic ruler, political successor of Muhammad.
historical turning points2
Historical Turning Points
  • Death of Ali
    • He was elected the fourth caliph in 656 CE. He was fatally stabbed by a disillusioned follower. Murder led to a permanent schism in the Islamic world.
    • Schism: split in the Church
  • Sunni/Shiite division
islam the religion
Islam the Religion
  • Islam is a monotheistic religion like Christianity and Judaism.
  • The Qur’an or Koran, is the sacred text of the Islam faith (comparable to the bible).
  • Muslims believe in a final judgment for all people.
  • Muslims believe Judeo-Christian prophets such as Moses and Jesus, but believe Muhammad is the greatest prophet.
  • Also believe in the five pillars of Islam.
five pillars of islam song
Five Pillars of Islam Song

five pillars of faith
Five Pillars of Faith
  • All Muslims believe in the Five Pillars of Faith and hold them as sacred.
    • One God
    • Daily Prayer
    • Alms (Charity) for the poor
    • Fasting
    • Hajj (religious journey)
one god
One God
  • Muslims believe that there is one God whose name is “Allah”.
    • Arabic word for God.
  • Muslims also believe that Muhammad was Allah’s messenger.
daily prayer
Daily Prayer
  • Muslims believe they must pray at least 5 times a day.
    • Before sunrise, after sunrise, at noon, before sundown, and after sunset.
  • They face the city of Mecca when they pray.
  • Often times they get together and pray in a Mosque (Muslim Church).
alms charity to the poor
Alms (Charity) to the Poor
  • Muslims believe in giving back to the poor and helping those who are less fortunate.
    • Other religions share similar views for charity to poor.
  • Muslims fast from sunrise till sunset during the holy month of Ramadan.
  • Ramadan is the holy season for Muslims, a time of cleansing of the soul and sacrifice.
    • 9th month of Islamic calendar
    • Exception: ill, traveling, pregnant, breastfeeding, diabetic or going through menstrual bleeding
    • Refrain from consuming food, drinking liquids, smoking, and engaging in sexual relations
  • Every Muslim must take a Hajj during their lifetime.
  • A Hajj is a religious journey back to the holy land of Mecca.
    • Muslims worship at the mosque in Mecca.
    • Thousands of Muslims complete the Hajj each year.
five pillars of islam song1
Five Pillars of Islam Song

jihad video
Jihad (video)
  • Many Muslims look at jihad, or effort in God’s service, as another duty. It means a “struggle within or struggle to introduce Islam to others”.
  • Jihad is often translated as “holy war” because of conquests that were made with military force.
spread of islam
Spread of Islam
  • By 632, Islam began spreading across the Arabian Peninsula.
  • Following the death of Muhammad, the Muslim people turned to the first caliph (successor of Muhammad), Abu Bakr.
  • Islamic armies under Bakr carried Islam across the Byzantine and Persian Empires.
spread of islam1
Spread of Islam
  • Islam spread into the Fertile Crescent, Iran, and Central Asia, facilitated by weak Byzantine and Persian empires.
  • Brought Islam into Syria, Iraq, Persia, Egypt, and Palestine by conquering these lands.
  • Expanded despite great distances, desert environments, and mountain barriers.
spread of islam3
Spread of Islam
  • Islam continued to spread across Northern Africa.
  • By the early 700’s, Muslims were nearing Europe.
  • In 711, Muslims crossed the Strait of Gibraltar into Spain and pushed north into France.
spread of islam video
Spread of Islam (Video)
  • In 732, The Muslims were defeated at the Battle of Tours by Christians.
    • Christian Armies were led by Charles Martel.
  • This stopped the spread of Islam into Western Europe, but Islam still remained strong in France.
islamic achievements
Islamic Achievements

1) Language

  • Arabic alphabet
  • Qur’an was written in Arabic, this is the language that all Muslims speak.
    • Became the unifying language of the Middle East.
  • Helped to facilitate (make) trade across Islamic lands.
  • Translated ancient texts in Arabic.

Why did a unified (unite/bring together) language help facilitate trade across the Islamic Lands?

islamic achievements1
Islamic Achievements

2) Mathematics

  • Muslims adopted the Indian system of numbers which utilized the concept of zero.
  • Invented Algebra.
  • Used math to build Mosques, survey land, design pumps, and foundations.
islamic achievements2
Islamic Achievements

3) Science

  • Chemist al-Raziidentified diseases and created a medical encyclopedia.
  • Physician, Ibn Sina, described bodily functions and diagnosed treatments for diseases.
islamic achievements3
Islamic Achievements

4) Literature

  • Qur’an, first and greatest Islamic work, is still the sacred text of Islam.
  • “Arabian Nights” – collection of folk tales
    • “One Thousand and One Nights” – another name
  • Islamic civilization will also believe in the importance of knowledge and construct universities.

WISH – “One thousand and One Nights”

islamic achievements4
Islamic Achievements

5) Art and Architecture

  • Calligraphy-elegant handwriting.
  • Since the Qur’an banned representation of living creatures, calligraphy was used for decoration.
  • Continued to create mosaics.
islamic achievements5
Islamic Achievements
  • Mosques - Adopted the domes and arches of the Byzantine architecture.
    • Holy churches of Islam.
    • Face Mecca – the holy city of Islam.
  • Perhaps the greatest Islamic building is the Dome of the Rock. (Observation Sheet)
divisions in islam
Divisions in Islam
  • There are two main sects of Islam.
  • This division began not long after the death of Muhammad.

1) Sunni

  • Believe the caliph (leader) should be chosen by the Muslim community.

2) Shiite

  • Believe the caliph should be a direct descendant of Muhammad.
divisions in islam1
Divisions in Islam
  • Sunni
    • 90% of Muslims today.
    • Opposed to fighting
    • Toleration of others.
    • Believe in peace and harmony among people.
divisions in islam2
Divisions in Islam
  • Shiite: also known as Shi’a.
  • Shiites translate part of the Koran that deals with jihad as holy wars, most Muslims translate this as inner struggle.
  • There are several divisions within the Shiite sect itself.

famous muslims
Famous Muslims
  • Muhammad Ali – Professional boxer
  • Kareem Abdul-Jabbar- professional basketball player
  • Louis Farrahkan – Supreme minister of Nation of Islam, advocate for African American interests
  • Malcolm X – Civil rights activist
terrorism and islam
Terrorism and Islam
  • Today many people associate Muslims and Islam with terrorism. However, most Muslims do not believe in jihad, terrorism, or violence.
  • The small minority that does believe in these acts have given Islam an unfair identity associated with terror.
terrorism and islam1
Terrorism and Islam
  • The instability of the Middle East has hurt the credibility of Islam, however Islam is still the fastest growing religion in the United States.