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Stem Rust of Wheat: An Oklahoma Perspective. B. Hunger, B. Tipton, J. Edwards, A. Klatt, and B. Carver Oklahoma State University. Wheat Leaf Rust ( Puccinia triticina ). Wheat Stripe Rust ( Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici ). Lahoma, OK; Apr, 2005. Lahoma, OK; Apr, 2005.

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stem rust of wheat an oklahoma perspective

Stem Rust of Wheat: An Oklahoma Perspective

B. Hunger, B. Tipton, J. Edwards, A. Klatt, and B. Carver

Oklahoma State University

wheat stripe rust puccinia striiformis f sp tritici
Wheat Stripe Rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici)

Lahoma, OK; Apr, 2005

Lahoma, OK; Apr, 2005

Apache, OK; Mar, 2005

wheat stem rust puccinia graminis f sp tritici
Wheat Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici)

Lahoma; mid 1980s

Photo above courtesy of Cereal Disease Lab, St. Paul, MN

wheat rust losses oklahoma
Wheat Rust Losses: Oklahoma

1980

1985

1992

1997

2001

2005

Data from Cereal Disease Lab, St. Paul, MN

slide6

Wheat Yield Losses Reported for Stem Rust

Since 1918 in the Great Plains

(Source: Cereal Disease Lab, St. Paul, MN)

Only minimal losses since the mid-1960s

slide7

1935: Percent Loss to Wheat Stem Rust

Data and slide courtesy of Cereal Disease Lab, St. Paul, MN

slide12

Pedigree for Triumph Hard Red Winter Wheat

  • Kanred/Blackhull//Burbank’s Quality/3/Kanred/Blackhull
  • Kanred: a selection from Crimean (a ‘Turkey’ type) released from KSU in 1917.
  • Blackhull: a selection from Turkey made by E.G. Clark (KS farmer-breeder) also released in 1917.
  • Burbank’s Quality (CItr 6607): a white spring wheat; “grown experimentally and to a small extent commercially in CA, MT, and OK in 1920.”
  • Danne’s first crosses with Burbank’s Quality were made in 1925.
slide13

Triumph Hard Red Winter Wheat

  • Released in 1940 by Joseph Danne; grown in TX, OK, KS, CO, MO, IL, and KY.
  • Superior characteristics included early maturity, short & stiff straw, resistance to loose smut & stem rust, et al.
  • Acreage reached:
  • 1944 – 72,459 1964 – 3,364,495
  • 1949 – 5,596,200 1969 – 2,223,099
  • 1959 – 6,341,167 1974 – 2,298,643
slide14

Triumph 64 Hard Red Winter Wheat

  • Originally released by Mr. Danne in 1948 or 1949 as ‘Rust Resistant Triumph’; in 1964, was re-released by the OAES as ‘Triumph 64’.
  • Tmp 64 is very similar to Triumph except for the rust resistance (which had been adapted to by PRT).
  • Tmp 64 heads 10 to 11 days earlier than Turkey or Kharkof, which head about 2 weeks later and mature about 1 week later than wheats grown in Oklahoma today(Dr. Brett Carver, OSU Wheat Breeder).
slide15

Comparison of Heading and Cutting Dates

  • Earliest (1940): heads – May 7th cut – June 19th
  • Latest (1940): heads – May 17th cut – June 29th
  • March 28th – wheat is approaching boot stage, and we will see heads by mid-April.”
  • “Our earliest maturing varieties are quite likely a month earlier than those varieties popular back in the day of Joseph Danne.”
  • “I don’t remember a year in the 18 I have been in Canadian County that at least some wheat wasn’t cut before Memorial Day – harvest in most years has a solid start by the last week of May.”

1940

2007 – Brad Tipton – Extension Educator, Canadian County

slide16

Burleigh, Schulze, and Eversmeyer. 1969. Some aspects of the summer & winter ecology of wheat rust fungi. Plant Dis. Rep. 53:648-651

Figure 1. Darkened area indicates where samples were taken during the 4-year study.

  • Conclusions:
  • PGT persist through the summer and fall months but no inoculum in any form detected after January of any year.
  • PRT present continuously in the area studied.
slide17

Chester, Ray, McLaughlin, and Hoffmaster. 1945. Diseases of field crops in Oklahoma. OAES Circular C-119, 23 pp.

slide18

Chester, K. S. 1942. The Nature and Prevention of Plant Diseases. The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia, 584 pp.

►PGT lives through the winter on wheat & produces uredospores in southern TX & Old Mexico; spring infections result from uredospores from the winter infections; teliospores are functionless.

►Stem rust in northern TX, OK, and southern KS is caused by uredospores blown in by south winds from southern TX and Old Mexico; teliospores are functionless.

►From northern KS to Canada, aeciospores from barberry and uredospores blown up from the south serve as inoculum; also teliospores may overwinter and lead to stem rust.

►In the southern Great Plains, varieties such as Early Blackhull escape stem rust because of their earliness.

slide19

Summary/Conclusions

  • ►Historically, stem rust is more severe in TX and states north of Oklahoma.
  • ►This is occurs for two reasons:
  • The early maturity of varieties grown in OK.
  • The inability of PGT to overwinter in OK.
  • ►Because of these factors, stem rust in OK results from uredospores blown up from TX, which arrive too late in the spring to cause significant damage.
  • ►Could this change?? Historically stripe rust has not been a problem in OK because of these same reasons. However, in three of the last six years, this has not been the case.
slide20

Popham, W.L. ???? Stem rust and the

common barberry. USDA, Bureau of

Entomology and Plant Quarantine,

Division of Plant Disease Control.

slide21

Popham, W.L. ???? Stem rust and the common barberry. USDA, Bureau of

Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Division of Plant Disease Control.