Framework: From Monarchy to Republic - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

framework from monarchy to republic n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Framework: From Monarchy to Republic PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Framework: From Monarchy to Republic

play fullscreen
1 / 20
Framework: From Monarchy to Republic
114 Views
Download Presentation
eben
Download Presentation

Framework: From Monarchy to Republic

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Framework: From Monarchy to Republic • Fall of Monarchy • Tarquinius Superbus • Rebellion of Aristocracy

  2. Framework: From Monarchy to Republic • Fall of Monarchy • Tarquinius Superbus • Rebellion of Aristocracy • What is a Republic? • Res publica • Senate populesque Romanus (SPQR) • State without a… • Checks and Balances

  3. Framework: From Monarchy to Republic • Fall of Monarchy • Tarquinius Superbus • Rebellion of Aristocracy • What is a Republic? • Res publica • Senate populesque Romanus (SPQR) • State without a king • Checks and Balances • Arc of Republic • Periodization • Early Republic: 509 BCE-280s BCE • Middle Republic: 280s BCE-133 BCE • Late Republic: 133 BCE-27 BCE • Aristocracy Retains Power • Expansion of Empire • Death of Republic

  4. Structure of Republican Governance “As for the Roman constitution, it had three elements, each of them possessing sovereign powers: and their respective share of power in the whole state had been regulated with such a scrupulous regard to equality and equilibrium, that no one could say for certain, not even a native, whether the constitution as a whole were an aristocracy or democracy or despotism.” -Polybius, 2nd Century Historian

  5. Structure of Republican Governance • Despotic Element: Consuls • Aristocratic Element: Senate • Who are they? • Becoming a Senator • Tasks • Proposing Laws • “Advice” • As Rome expands…

  6. Structure of Republican Governance • Despotic Element: Consuls • Aristocratic Element: Senate • Democratic Element: Assemblies • Who could participate? • Overview • Rome • What did they do? • Discuss? • The Real Power? • Three Major Assemblies • Comitia Centuriata (Century Assembly) • Comitia Tributa (Tribal Assembly) • Concilium Plebis (Plebeian Council)

  7. Structure of Republican Governance • Despotic Element: Consuls • Aristocratic Element: Senate • Democratic Element: Assemblies • Magistrates • Term Limits • Elected by… • Hierarchy • Magistrates become… • Evolution • The Offices

  8. Perpetuating Inequality and Senatorial Power • Unpaid Offices

  9. Perpetuating Inequality and Senatorial Power • Unpaid Offices • Centrality of Senate

  10. FC.31B THE FLOW OF POWER IN THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Senate controls various traditional and religious procedures: Senate controls popular assemblies through: Senate: Advisory body of 300 ex-office holders whose decrees (senatus consulta) are not technically laws but have virtual force of law to: Rule on technical acceptability of treaties & laws Assign budgets to. governors & officials Assign magistrates’ tasks (e.g., which proconsul rules which province & for how long) Comitia Centuriata • Votes on war & peace • Weighted bloc voting to favor those who bear the brunt of the fighting (which used to be the rich) Comitia Tributa; • Votes on laws that only officials (who are also senators) can propose • Open ballots Control votes of their clientes (poor dependants) Senate controls officials who return to Senate after 1-yr terms: Tribunes (who are also members of Senate) • Supposedly protect the poor, propose laws, & can veto any act of state they or the senate want Consuls & praetors (who are also members of Senate) • Control what laws are proposed to the assemblies, their text, & who gets to discuss them Priests (who are also senators) that can declare bad omens & postpone govt. business for that day Cursus Honorum The minumum age, number of times, & order one can hold offices: Military tribune quaestor aedile or tribune praetor consul Censors: 2 officials elected every 5 yrs to choose worthy men to fill the Senate to 300 & expel unworthy senators • Centrality of Senate • “Advice” • Shaped Laws • Which Assembly? • Crucial Role in Assemblies • Senate = Magistrates • Dictated Tasks of Magistrates • Cursus Honorum Problems of ruling an empire w/city-state govt. & army of short-term amateur officials & militia(FC.30)

  11. FC.31B THE FLOW OF POWER IN THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Senate controls various traditional and religious procedures: Senate controls popular assemblies through: Senate: Advisory body of 300 ex-office holders whose decrees (senatus consulta) are not technically laws but have virtual force of law to: Rule on technical acceptability of treaties & laws Assign budgets to. governors & officials Assign magistrates’ tasks (e.g., which proconsul rules which province & for how long) Comitia Centuriata • Votes on war & peace • Weighted bloc voting to favor those who bear the brunt of the fighting (which used to be the rich) Comitia Tributa; • Votes on laws that only officials (who are also senators) can propose • Open ballots Control votes of their clientes (poor dependants) Senate controls officials who return to Senate after 1-yr terms: Tribunes (who are also members of Senate) • Supposedly protect the poor, propose laws, & can veto any act of state they or the senate want Consuls & praetors (who are also members of Senate) • Control what laws are proposed to the assemblies, their text, & who gets to discuss them Priests (who are also senators) that can declare bad omens & postpone govt. business for that day Cursus Honorum The minumum age, number of times, & order one can hold offices: Military tribune quaestor aedile or tribune praetor consul Censors: 2 officials elected every 5 yrs to choose worthy men to fill the Senate to 300 & expel unworthy senators • Voting • In Rome • Vote by Tribe/Century • Bloc Voting Problems of ruling an empire w/city-state govt. & army of short-term amateur officials & militia(FC.30)

  12. Bloc Voting in Comitia Centuriata • 193 Centuries, split up according to property and age • 18 for equites • 170 for enlisted • Split up, disproportionately, on property lines • 85 for over 46 • 85 for under 46 • 5 for others • Just 1 for the mass of very poor • Result: _________________________

  13. FC.31B THE FLOW OF POWER IN THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Senate controls various traditional and religious procedures: Senate controls popular assemblies through: Senate: Advisory body of 300 ex-office holders whose decrees (senatus consulta) are not technically laws but have virtual force of law to: Rule on technical acceptability of treaties & laws Assign budgets to. governors & officials Assign magistrates’ tasks (e.g., which proconsul rules which province & for how long) Comitia Centuriata • Votes on war & peace • Weighted bloc voting to favor those who bear the brunt of the fighting (which used to be the rich) Comitia Tributa; • Votes on laws that only officials (who are also senators) can propose • Open ballots Control votes of their clientes (poor dependants) Senate controls officials who return to Senate after 1-yr terms: Tribunes (who are also members of Senate) • Supposedly protect the poor, propose laws, & can veto any act of state they or the senate want Consuls & praetors (who are also members of Senate) • Control what laws are proposed to the assemblies, their text, & who gets to discuss them Priests (who are also senators) that can declare bad omens & postpone govt. business for that day Cursus Honorum The minumum age, number of times, & order one can hold offices: Military tribune quaestor aedile or tribune praetor consul Censors: 2 officials elected every 5 yrs to choose worthy men to fill the Senate to 300 & expel unworthy senators • Voting • In Rome • Vote by Tribe/Century • Bloc Voting • Vote in order of • Justification • Open Ballot Problems of ruling an empire w/city-state govt. & army of short-term amateur officials & militia(FC.30)

  14. Patronage/Clientage • Paternalism and Pietas • Nature of Patron/Client Relationship • Patron provides… • Client provides… • Traced back to… • Effect on Politics…

  15. Social Conflict • Patriarchs and the Plebeians • Overview: • Monarchy into Early Republic • Who were Patricians? • What did they do? • How did you become a Patrician? • Traces back to…

  16. Social Conflict • Patriarchs and the Plebeians • Overview: • Monarchy into Early Republic • Who were Patricians? • What did they do? • How did you become a Patrician? • Traces back to… • Struggle of the Orders • Plebs gain status from 509-287 • Original Restrictions • Plebeian Progress • Plebs want… • Technique • Pleb Victories • LexHortensia

  17. Social Conflict • The New Aristocracy and the Retention of Privilege • Which Plebs benefit? • The New Aristocracy • Same Families… • Justification • “Between the weakness of the ruler and the rashness of the masses, the aristocrats have occupied a middle position, and there is no position more moderate than theirs.” --Cicero