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Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed). Chapter 3 States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness. _______________ our awareness of ourselves and our environments _______________ focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus. Sleep and Dreams. ___________________

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myers exploring psychology 6th ed
Myers’ EXPLORINGPSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed)

Chapter 3

States of Consciousness

waking consciousness
Waking Consciousness
  • _______________
    • our awareness of ourselves and our environments
  • _______________
    • focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
sleep and dreams
Sleep and Dreams
  • ___________________
    • the biological clock
    • regular bodily rhythms, such as of wakefulness and body temperature, that occur on a 24-hour cycle
sleep and dreams4
Sleep and Dreams
  • REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep
    • recurring sleep stage
    • vivid dreams
    • “paradoxical sleep”
      • muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active
  • Sleep
    • periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness
sleep and dreams5
Sleep and Dreams
  • Measuring sleep activity
brain waves and sleep stages
Brain Waves and Sleep Stages
  • ____________
    • slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain
  • _____________
    • large, slow waves of deep sleep
  • Hallucinations
    • false sensory experiences
stages in a typical night s sleep

Awake

Sleep

stages

1

2

3

REM

4

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Hours of sleep

Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep
stages in a typical night s sleep8

Minutes

of

Stage 4 and

REM

Decreasing

Stage 4

25

20

15

Increasing

REM

10

5

0

1

2

5

6

7

8

3

4

Hours of sleep

Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep
sleep deprivation
Sleep Deprivation
  • Effects of Sleep Loss
    • fatigue
    • impaired concentration
    • depressed immune system
    • greater vulnerability to accidents
sleep deprivation10

Accident

frequency

More sleep,

fewer accidents

Less sleep,

more accidents

2,800

2,700

4,200

2,600

4000

2,500

3,800

2,400

3,600

Spring time change

(hour sleep loss)

Fall time change

(hour sleep gained)

Monday before time change

Monday after time change

Sleep Deprivation
sleep disorders
Sleep Disorders
  • Insomnia
    • persistent problems in falling or staying asleep
  • Narcolepsy
    • uncontrollable sleep attacks
  • __________________
    • temporary cessation of breathing during sleep
    • momentary reawakenings
sleep disorders12
Sleep Disorders
  • Are You Getting Enough Sleep??
night terrors and nightmares
Night Terrors and Nightmares
  • Night Terrors
    • occur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, usually during Stage 4
    • high arousal - appearance of being terrified
    • seldom remembered
dreams
Dreams
  • What are your thoughts about dreams?
  • What have you learned to believe?
  • What are some recurring dreams you have?
  • What are lucid dreams?
dreams freud
Dreams: Freud
  • Dreams
    • sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind
    • hallucinatory imagery
    • discontinuities
    • incongruities
    • delusional acceptance of the content
    • difficulties remembering
dreams freud16
Dreams: Freud
  • Sigmund Freud--The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
    • wish fulfillment
    • discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings
  • ___________________
    • remembered story line
  • __________________
    • underlying meaning
dreams17
Dreams
  • As Information Processing
    • helps facilitate memories
  • As a Physiological Function
    • periodic brain stimulation
  • REM Rebound
    • REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation
drugs and consciousness
Drugs and Consciousness
  • Psychoactive Drug
    • a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
  • Physical Dependence
    • physiological need for a drug
    • marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms
  • Psychological Dependence
    • a psychological need to use a drug
    • for example, to relieve negative emotions
dependence and addiction

Big

effect

Response to

first exposure

Drug

effect

After repeated

exposure, more

drug is needed

to produce

same effect

Little

effect

Large

Small

Drug dose

Dependence and Addiction
  • ______________
    • diminishing effect with regular use
  • _____________
    • discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use
psychoactive drugs
Psychoactive Drugs
  • ____________________
    • drugs that reduce neural activity
      • alcohol, barbiturates, opiates
    • slow body functions
psychoactive drugs22
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Alcohol
    • affects motor skills, judgment, and memory
    • reduces self awareness
  • Barbiturates
    • drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
psychoactive drugs23
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Opiates
    • opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin)
    • opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
    • highly addictive
psychoactive drugs24
Psychoactive Drugs
  • _____________________
    • drugs that excite neural activity
      • caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine
    • speed up body functions
psychoactive drugs26
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Amphetamines
    • drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
psychoactive drugs27
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Cocaine
    • effects depend on dosage, form, expectations, personality and situation
      • coca leaves
      • powder
      • crack
psychoactive drugs29
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Ecstasy
    • MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine)
    • stimulant and mild hallucinogen
    • dangerous short and long term effects
psychoactive drugs30
Psychoactive Drugs
  • _____________________
    • psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
      • LSD
      • MDMA (Ecstasy)
psychoactive drugs31
Psychoactive Drugs
  • LSD
    • lysergic acid diethylamide
    • a powerful hallucinogenic drug
    • also known as acid
  • THC
    • the major active ingredient in marijuana
    • triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
near death experiences
Near-Death Experiences
  • Near-Death Experience
    • an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death
    • often similar to drug-induced hallucinations