Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 6 States of Consciousness James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
States of Consciousness • Consciousness • our awareness of ourselves and our environment • Selective Attention • the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus • cocktail party effect
Sleep and Dreams • Fantasy Prone Personality • imagines and recalls experiences with lifelike vividness • spends considerable time fantasizing • Circadian rhythm • the biological clock • cyclical bodily rhythms • wakefulness • body temperature
Sleep and Dreams • REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep • recurring sleep stage • vivid dreams commonly occur • also known as paradoxical sleep • muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active
Brain Waves and Sleep Stages • Alpha Waves • slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state • Delta Waves • large, slow waves of deep sleep • Hallucinations • false sensory experiences
Brain Waves and Sleep Stages • Sleep • Periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness
Awake Sleep stages 1 2 3 REM 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hours of sleep Typical Nightly Sleep Stages
Minutes of Stage 4 and REM Decreasing Stage 4 25 20 15 Increasing REM 10 5 0 1 2 5 6 7 8 3 4 Hours of sleep Typical Nightly Sleep Stages
Sleep Deprivation • Effects of Sleep Loss • fatigue • impaired concentration • immune suppression • irritability • slowed performance • accidents • planes • autos and trucks
Accident frequency More sleep, fewer accidents Less sleep, more accidents 2,800 2,700 4,200 2,600 4000 2,500 3,800 2,400 3,600 Spring time change (hour sleep loss) Fall time change (hour sleep gained) Monday after time change Monday before time change Sleep Deprivation
Sleep Deprivation Are You Sleep Deprived? 1. Need an alarm clock in order to wake up at the appropriate time. 2. It’s a struggle for me to get out of bed in the morning. 3. Weekday mornings I hit the snooze bar several times to get more sleep. 4. I feel tired, irritable, and stressed out during the week. 5. I have trouble concentrating and remembering. 6. I feel slow with critical thinking, problem solving, and being creative. 7. I often fall asleep watching TV. 8. I often fall asleep in boring meetings or lectures or in warm rooms. 9. I often fall asleep after heavy meals or after a low dose of alcohol. 10. I often fall asleep while relaxing after dinner. 11. I often fall asleep within five minutes of getting into bed. 12. I often feel drowsy while driving. 13. I often sleep extra hours on weekend mornings. 14. I often need a nap to get through the day. 15. I have dark circles around my eyes.
Sleep Disorders • Insomnia • recurring problems in falling or staying asleep • Narcolepsy • uncontrollable sleep attacks • sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times
Hypersomnia • 12-14 hours per day plus nap. • Fatigue, stressed –out feeling. • Rule out medical.
Sleep Walking/Talking • NONREM Sleep. • 3 levels of talking. • More common in childhood.
Sleep Disorders • Sleep Apnea • characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings • Night Terrors • high arousal-appearance of being terrified • usually in Stage 4, within 2-3 hours of falling asleep
Misc. Sleep Disorders • Bruxism. • Sleep Paralysis.
Dreams--Freud • Dreams • sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind • Sigmund Freud-The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) • dreams viewed as wish fulfillment • discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings
Dreams • Manifest Content • remembered story line of a dream • Latent Content • underlying, censored meaning of a dream • REM Rebound • tendency for REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation
Hypnosis • Hypnosis • a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts or behaviors will spontaneously occur
Hypnosis • Posthypnotic Amnesia • supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis • induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion
Hypnosis • Unhypnotized persons can also do this
Hypnosis • Orne & Evans (1965) • control group instructed to “pretend” • unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones • Posthypnotic Suggestion • suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized • used by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors
Hypnosis and Pain • Dissociation • a split in consciousness • allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others • Hidden Observer • Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis
Attention is diverted from an aversive odor. How? Divided-consciousness theory: hypnosis has caused a split in awareness Social Influence theory: the subject is so caught up in the hypnotized role that she ignores the odor Hypnosis • Divided Consciousness or Social Phenomenon?
Near Death Experiences • Near Death Experience • an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death • often similar to drug-induced hallucinations