Types of exercise training the effects on the body
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Types of Exercise Training & the Effects on the Body. Melissa McLaughlin Michael Dellogono. Muscular Adaptations to Resistance Training. Increased size Fiber type transition Biochemical improvements (enzymes) Increased strength, power, & endurance. Hypertrophy. Muscular enlargement

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Types of exercise training the effects on the body

Types of Exercise Training & the Effects on the Body

Melissa McLaughlin

Michael Dellogono

Muscular adaptations to resistance training
Muscular Adaptations to Resistance Training

  • Increased size

  • Fiber type transition

  • Biochemical improvements (enzymes)

    • Increased strength, power, & endurance


  • Muscular enlargement

    • Cross sectional area, + relation w/strength

  • Result of increased synthesis of actin & myosin and number of myofibrils

Strength power
Strength & Power

  • Strength - maximal force that a muscle or group of muscles can generate

  • Power - maximal force exerted as fast as possible - EXPLOSIVE!


  • Ability for the muscle to repetitively contract of a sustained period of time

    • Ultra-Marathoners

    • Rowing (long distance)

    • Distance runners

Interval training
Interval Training

  • Increase & decrease intensity between aerobic & anaerobic

    • Work:active recovery ratio (1:3, 85-90%)

    • No more than 1 or 2 sessions/week to start w/ 3 days of rest

    • change 3:1 to 2.5:1.5 or 2.0:2.0

  • Go past aerobic threshold & then return to aerobic conditioning level to improve performance

    • intensity body switches from burning a greater % of fat to a greater % of carbs , 85% of your maxHR

  • Heart rate is great way to measure how hard you are working

    • Max heart rate=220-age

    • 85% of max heart rate (21 years old): (220-age)x.85= 169.15

Advantages disadvantages
Advantages & Disadvantages

  • Advantages:

    • Fitness, performance, recovery time improve quickly

    • Improves aerobic fitness better than traditional training & in less time

    • Enzymes use oxygen more efficiently increased O2 capacity

    • Increase fat burn & can double endurance capacity w/ 15 min of intense cycling over a 2-week period

    • HR will be lower at work & active recovery

  • Disadvantages:

    • Performed too often can increase risk of overtraining

      • Symptoms: loss of performance & appetite, inability to sleep, chronic aches and pains & colds, overuse injuries, unusual fatigue, increase in resting HR, irritability

    • bad knees avoid intervals walking, running or jogging

    • Stop exercise if it hurts & modify workout

    • Check with doctor before starting interval training

Interval training1
Interval Training

  • Physiological effects:

    • @ low end of training range: working aerobically and burning more fat

    • @ high end of training range: HR increases, breathing harder, anaerobic, burning more carbs than fat

  • Reasons to do interval training:

    • improve recovery HR

    • weight-loss plateau

    • bored

    • Allows you to workout harder & longer & burn more fat & more calories

      • Must burn more calories than you consume to lose weight even with intervals

  • 8-10min warm up & 5 min cool-down after intervals

    • See sample interval training

Interval vs circuit training
Interval vs. Circuit Training

  • Circuit training

    • Spend 30-45s at one machine or station with dumbbells or resistance exercise and then move onto next station

    • aerobic & RT

    • Another form of interval training

      • when you break from one machine to the next HR decreases & when you begin working out again it increases

      • wont be as beneficial as running or cycling intervals but will tone and strengthen muscles

      • Whereas aerobic interval training has more beneficial effects

High intensity interval training
High-Intensity Interval Training

  • Specialized form of IT

    • Short intervals of max intensity exercise-low to moderate intensity exercise

  • Similarities to traditional interval training

    • Differences include:

      • Increased EPOC

      • Burn more fat

      • Limits muscle loss

  • To get the benefits from HIIT

    • push yourself past the upper end of your aerobic zone & allow your body to replenish your anaerobic energy system during the recovery intervals

  • HII involve maximum effort, not simply a higher heart rate

    • there are many different approaches to HIIT

      • different numbers of high and low intensity intervals

      • different levels of intensity during the low intensity intervals

      • different lengths of time for each interval

      • different numbers of training sessions per week

Guidelines for hiit
Guidelines for HIIT

  • designed for people who want to boost overall cardiovascular fitness, endurance and fat loss without losing muscle mass

  • Before starting the program, you should be able to exercise for at least 20-30 minutes at 70-85% of maxHR

  • gradually build up your training program so that you don’t overdo it

  • warm up and cool down

  • Work as hard as you can during the high intensity intervals, until you feel the burning sensation in your muscles indicating that you have entered your anaerobic zone

  • If you experience any chest pain or breathing difficulties during your HIIT workout, cool down immediately

  • HR should be at 70% of maxHR during recovery

    • If it is not: shorten work intervals and/or lengthen recovery intervals

Cross fit

  • Combines weightlifting, sprinting and gymnastics

  • Proficiency is required in each of 10 fitness domains

    • cardiovascular/respiratory endurance, stamina, strength, flexibility, power, speed, agility, balance, coordination & accuracy

  • Fitness: increased work capacity across all domains

    • neurologic & hormonal adaptations across all metabolic pathways

  • Run, row, jump rope, climb rope, carry odd objects, move large loads over short distances & use power-lifting & Olympic weightlifting

  • Used by 2000 gyms, F.D., law enforcement agencies, military organizations

    • At a gym: warm up, skill development segment, high intensity workout for 10-20 min

    • Can be used by: children, pregnant women, seniors, football players, military special forces, endurance athletes

  • Performed 3-5 d/week can provide exercise that will satisfy exercise guidelines

  • Has greater health benefits than moderate activity

Cross fit1

  • "equals better fitness and stronger muscles in a more reasonable amount of time“

  • "build muscle and get in shape by spending 60 minutes or more in the gym several days a week..."

  • "is a different type of exercise routine ...a well-rounded and very efficient way to achieve a higher level of fitness ...that does not need a whole lot of fancy equipment, but does offer a nice variety to keep the interest level up and provide the challenge needed to keep the exercise fun.”

    • PureHealthMD, Discovery Health Channel