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C R I M E. C R I M E. An offence against the community punishable by the state. Criminal justice. THE STATE prosecutes those charged with a crime. THE POLICE investigate a crime apprehend suspects detain them in custody

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  1. C R I M E

  2. C R I M E • Anoffenceagainstthecommunitypunishablebythe state

  3. Criminaljustice • THE STATE • prosecutesthose chargedwith a crime • THE POLICE • investigate a crime • apprehendsuspects • detainthemincustody • send a file ofthecase to CPS (CrownProsecution Service)

  4. Initiationofcriminalproceedings by The serving of a summons setting out the offence and requiring the accused to attend court A warrant of arrest issued by a Magistrates’ Court (in more serious cases)

  5. Jurisdictionof courts WhichcourtsinEnglandandWalesexercisecriminaljurisdiction?

  6. Categoriesofcriminaloffence • INDICTABLE • seriouscrimes (e.g.murder) • triable on INDICTMENT • CROWN COURT • (judgeandjury) SUMMARY minorcrimes MAGISTRATES’ COURT (without a jury) CRIMINAL OFFENCES *INDICTMENT (in’daitm∂nt)– a writtenaccusationofcrimes (containstheallegedoffences, supportedbyfacts)

  7. CategoriesofcriminaloffencebeforetheCriminalLawAct 1967 TREASON the most seriouscrimeagainstthe state (punishablebydeath) FELONY more seriouscrimes (murder, manslaughter, rape, arson, burglary, theft, bigamyetc.) MISDEMEANOR less serious crimes (minor assaults, conspiracy, perjury, blasphemy, fraud, road traffic offences) INDICTABLE OFFENCES

  8. New classificationof INDICTABLE OFFENCES


  10. Criminal court proceedings Adversarial system of justice (each side collects and presents their own evidence and attacks their opponent’s cross examination) PROSECUTION DEFENCE (prosecutor, (defendant prosecuting attorney) defence counsel) (has to prove beyond reasonable (the accused is presumed innocent doubt that the accused is guilty) until proved to be guilty - can PLEAD GUILTY or NOT GUILTY)

  11. EXEMPTIONS fromcriminalliability

  12. DRUNKENNESS or INTOXICATION DEFENCE only if induced by others, without fault on the part of the accused; B) produces temporary insanity or negates the specific degree of intent required by the offence charges

  13. Essentialexpressions • to try sb for sth(to examine evidence in the court of law and decide if sb is guilty or innocent) • triable; a trial • indictment, indictable • summary offences • treason • felony • misdemeanor • Criminal Law Act • to charge with an offence, a charge of murder • to prove –proved –proved proven • to prosecute vs. to defend • prosecution vs. defence • prosecutor vs. defendant (theaccused) • criminalliability • beyondresonabledoubt • to accuse • to convict • a verdict • a sentence • to exempt; anexemption • drunkenness or intoxication

  14. Vocabularyexercise I • Completethedefinitions. 1. a …………. ………… ………… - a court documentauthorisingthe police to detainsomeone 2. an …………….. – a writtenstatementwithdetailsofthecrimessomeone is chargedwith 3. a ……………. – a formalorder to attend court

  15. Vocabularyexercise I – Answerkey • warrantofarrest • indictment • summons

  16. Vocabularyexercise II criminaldoubt sentence indictable severe plearealisticguilty reasonabledefenceproceedingscostsreducedprospectsoffencespenalties • Make word combinationsofthewordsinthe box and use appropriateones to completethesentencesbelow. 1 TheCrownProsecutorconsiderswhetherthere’s sufficientevidence to provide a …………….... ………………. ofconviction. 2. Thereshouldbe no convictionwithoutproofbeyond ….. ……. . 3. TheCrown Court alwayshears ……......…… …………….… such as manslaughter. 4. Insentencingseriouscrimes, courtscanimpose … …… …… ….. . 5. At theendof a trial, adefendantmaybeordered to pay a contributiontowards ……………….. ……………….. .

  17. Vocabularyexercise II – Answerkey 1 TheCrownProsecutorconsiderswhetherthere’s sufficientevidence to provide a realisticprospectsofconviction. 2. Thereshouldbe no convictionwithoutproofbeyondreasonabledoubt. 3. TheCrown Court alwayshearsindictableoffencessuch as manslaughter. 4. Insentencingseriouscrimes, courtscanimposesevere penalties. 5. At theendof a trial, adefendantmaybeordered to pay a contributiontowardsdefencecosts.

  18. Vocabularyexercise III aquitted sentence/penaltydetainedbail appearschargeapprehend Replacetheunderlinedwordsandphraseswith alternative wordsandphrasesfromthe box. Bailmayberefusedandthedefendantmaybe (1) heldin police custody. Alternatively, thedefendantmaybe (2) foundnotguiltybythe court anddischarged. Onceproceedingshavebeeninitiated, thedefendant (3) comesbeforethe court. The police formally (4) accusethesuspectinthe police station. IftheoffenderpleadsguiltyintheMagistrates’ Court, thecourtimposes a(5) punishment. The police investigate a seriousoffenceand (6) arrest a suspect. Thesuspectmayask for (7) releasefromcustodybeforetrial.

  19. Vocabularyexercise III – Answerkey detained acquitted appears charge sentence/penalty bail

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