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Chapter 2. Sports and Entertainment Economics. Sites. Top revenue producing movies The cost of making Spiderman. Profit Makers. What is Profit ? the amount of $ remaining from revenues after all expenses are paid. Revenue: $ a business receives from the sale of goods and services.

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chapter 2

Chapter 2

Sports and Entertainment Economics

  • Top revenue producing movies
  • The cost of making Spiderman
profit makers
Profit Makers
  • What is Profit?
    • the amount of $ remaining from revenues after all expenses are paid.
    • Revenue: $ a business receives from the sale of goods and services.
    • Movie ticket sales have increased each year but movie studios struggle for earnings
    • Costs of production and marketing have increased even more.
    • Studios are looking for ways to cut costs and make more profit.

Home video and international box-office sales are sometimes larger sources of income than US ticket sales.

Studios seek out partnerships with rival studios to help produce, promote & distribute films.

Movie studios, sports teams, sports venues, and the various media companies are ALL in the business to make $$$$.

profit motive
Profit Motive
  • Means making decisions to use resources in ways that result in the greatest profit.
    • Ex: NFL teams have total revenue in excess of $5.5 billion. Teams operate under agreement to share total revenue among all 32 teams.
    • The financial resources that teams share is called the total football revenue (TFL).
      • Includes revenues from local and national TV broadcasts, ticket sales, and sales of concession and merchandise
  • Agreement ends in 2012 (hence the lockout)
    • Players receive about 50% of TFL.
    • Another percentage goes to pay all other costs of operating the business.
    • About $150 million per season is transferred from the top 15 high-revenue teams to the low-revenue teams.
    • The money that is left after all of the expenses are paid, including salaries and taxes, is the profit.
  • New Agreement (July 2011)
    • Division of revenue
      • 53% to owners
      • 47% to players
    • Salary Cap
      • $120 million in salary and bonuses
      • Plus $22 million in benefits
cultural opportunities
  • Worldwide distribution revenue is critical for movie profits.
    • Income from international release of a movie can increase the box-office take by 50-100% over domestic ticket sales.
    • Titanic: biggest ticket seller in last 100 yrs. With $600.8 million in US ticket sales and $1,234.6 million in overseas tickets, more than double the total sales of Star Wars which is 2nd in sales.
what do you think
What do you think??
  • When Toyota, a television sponsor of Desperate Housewives, found out the show would be available free to viewers, it could have pulled its support. Instead Toyota signed on to sponsor the online version as well. Toyota views the Internet as a way to complement the older technology of TV. The Internet gives viewers more choices about when they can view their favorite shows. Toyota benefits from the increased exposure both on television and the Internet.
  • What are some additional opportunities for online viewers traditional TV shows? Do you think the Internet will totally replace television? Why or why not?
  • The study of how goods and services are produced, distributed, and consumed.
    • Macroeconomics – study of economics of the entire society (the big picture).
    • Microeconomics – study of relationships between individual consumers and producers.
      • Focus of sports & entertainment marketers
sports entertainment economics
Sports & Entertainment Economics
  • People have limited time and money to spend on sports and entertainment.
    • Decisions are based on the amount of satisfaction they believe they will receive from the product.
    • Economic utility: amount of satisfaction a person receives from the consumption of product/service
    • S&E marketers are constantly seeking ways to increase the economic utility of products/services.
4 types of utility
4 Types of Utility
  • Form utility: when the physical characteristics of a product/service are improved
    • Ex: offering a movie in DVD format vs. full length film
    • DVD can be mailed in an envelope; the full length movie must be packaged for shipping
types of utility
Types of Utility
  • Time utility: result of making the product/service available when the consumer wants it.
    • Ex: Movie theater schedules several different showings of movie throughout the day
types of utility1
Types of Utility
  • Place utility: ensures that the product is available where the consumer wants it.
    • Ex: if the consumer wants to watch a movie at home, then the movie must be made available for purchase or rental at conveniently located retail outlets
types of utility2
Types of Utility
  • Possession utility: results from making the product/service available at an affordable price.
    • Ex: to take possession of the movie, the consumer must be able to obtain it at an affordable price
    • Ex: allowing consumers to rent instead of buy
    • Ex: having more than one payment option is a convenience for customers
risk management
  • Opening a sports & entertainment business requires taking risks.
    • Risk is the possibility of financial gain or loss or personal injury
  • Financial loss can occur if a business does not make a profit and has to close
  • Personal injuries can occur if businesses do not take the appropriate safety precautions
  • Must consider types of risk.
articles video clips
Articles/Video Clips

  • Boston preparing for final game of Stanley Cup

Use for Sports Marketing discussion about risk... (Texas Ranger Fan) (NFL fight) (Indiana State Fair pics) (Indiana State Fair video)

Who, if anyone, is to blame?

What preventative measures should be taken?

Kinds of risk?

3 types of risk
3 Types of Risk

1. Natural Risk

  • Includes weather conditions that can’t be avoided
    • Tornadoes, blizzards, hurricanes, droughts, floods, etc.
  • Hurricane Katrina
    • Population decreased by 80%
    • Hotels, restaurants, & other tourist attractions lost months of business
  • 2010 Vikings/Eagles Sunday Night game was moved to Tuesday (snow)
3 types of risk1
3 Types of Risk

2. Human Risk

  • Can result from customer dishonesty, employee theft, and employee incompetence
  • Customers: shoplifting, credit card fraud, bad checks
  • If employees aren’t trained properly, they can present a financial and safety risks
3 types of risk2
3 Types of Risk

3. Economic Risk

  • Result in changes of the economy.
  • The economy affects consumer’s lifestyles which plays an important role in deciding purchases
  • Good economy = consumers have more discretionary income
  • No guarantee that consumer demand will remain consistent for a long period of time.
additional classifications
Additional Classifications

Gain or Loss Risk

  • Sports teams that don’t attract enough fans can cease to exist
    • People who started team can lose investments.
  • If team is successful, investors make $$$
    • Since outcome is unknown…speculative risk
  • If there’s a chance of an event occurring could result only in risk….pure risk
    • Ex: if a flood closes a golf resort
additional classifications1
Additional Classifications

Controllable Risk

  • If a loss can be prevented or the likelihood of its occurrence reduced
    • Ex: a theater has adequate fire exits, sprinkler systems, and employees that have been trained on safety procedures

Uncontrollable Risk

  • If a loss can’t be controlled
    • Ex: If a tornado blows away the theater
additional classifications2
Additional Classifications

Insurable Risk

  • Pure risk for which the chances of loss are predictable and the amount of the loss can be estimated
    • Ex: the likelihood of a fire and the average dollar amount of the fire can be calculated using stats similar losses that have occurred in the past
risk management1
Risk Management
  • Involves preventing, reducing, or lessening the negative impacts of risks by using the following strategies…
  • Risk avoidance
  • Risk insurance
  • Risk transfer
  • Risk retention

*Marketers must develop risk strategies.

*Careful planning is required to prevent financial loss and personal injuries.

managing risk
Managing Risk

1. Risk Avoidance

  • Hire security personnel/perform background checks
  • Unlock fire exits in a theater
  • Can be sued if appropriate steps are not taken
  • Liable: means the business is legally responsible for damages and may have to pay medical costs and other losses
  • Added measures: security guards, video surveillance, controlled access to public/private areas, safety training
managing risk1
Managing Risk

2. Risk Insurance

  • S&E business contract with insurance companies and other financial institutions to cover risks of financial loss
  • Insurance companies can predict potential loss
  • Ex: property insurance, liability insurance, or theft insurance
managing risk2
Managing Risk

3. Risk Transfer

  • Can transfer risks to another company or consumer
    • Ex: park wanting to host a fireworks display may contract with another company to be responsible for the show
    • Ex: statement on the back of the event ticket saying that the promoter isn’t responsible for any harm to the ticket holder
managing risk3
Managing Risk

4. Risk Retention

  • Businesses that face uninsurable risks must assume the cost of the risk
  • Owner of theater production company may not sell as many tickets as planned due to bad reviews
  • Business can set aside funds to use for unplanned circumstances.
what do you think1
What do you think??

List four steps a sports venue could take to avoid risk of injury to fans attending games.


ESPN's Outside The Lines: South Florida Youth Football Stands Teeming With Gamblers

By Gus Garcia-Roberts, Tue., May 3 2011 at 10:13 AM

ESPN's Outside the Lines spent some times in the stands watching South Florida Youth Football League games-- which feature 30,000 kids aged 5 to 15 from Palm Beach to Miami-- and emerged with a pretty stunning short documentary on how gamblers have turned the matches into their own personal cockfights.

From a coach confronted with footage of him exchanging money, to brawls breaking out in the stands, to young players stashing hundred-dollar bill graft payments in their uniforms, the evidence here is beyond damning. The league's website now has an alert about gambling, saying that any coaches caught gambling will receive a "lifetime ban".

Gambling in Youth Football

Gambling Follow Up

business ethics
  • Ethics – a system of deciding what is right or wrong in a reasoned and impartial manner.
    • Important part of sound decisions.
    • Integrity, trust, and fairness.
    • Ex: 1998 NBA lockout (Olajuwon, Shaq)
ethics and character matter
Ethics and Character Matter!
  • Principles – high standards of rules and guidelines in both business and personal life.
    • Character Development: can be divided into stages in which people advance from childish behavior to mature and responsible behavior based on principles.
character development
Character Development
  • Early Stages: Child learns that bad behavior will result in punishment; good behavior will result in rewards.
  • Later stages: Eventually reach a stage which acts are based on a set of principles. Consider results and others when making decisions.
  • Some youth may have difficulty developing the later stages of ethical behavior due to lack of mature adult role models.
questions to ponder
Questions to ponder
  • Do poor examples of ethical behavior receive more attention while good examples are ignored?
  • Are there more instances today of unethical behavior or is it just being reported more than in previous decades?
  • Do people justify unethical behavior by saying “everybody is doing it”?
business behavior
Business Behavior
  • Seeking an Advantage: Ex: athletes taking illegal drugs
  • When Being Bad is Profitable: Ex: athletes being assessed fines for inappropriate behavior
  • Effective and Ethical: Good decisions are the right choices for the long term.
related articles
Related Articles
  • College-Mascot Controversies
  • Steroid Scandal Could Affect Endorsement Deals
  • Worst Scandals in College Sports
  • Penn State sponsors
financial analysis
  • Main purpose of all business activity surrounding sports and entertainment is to make a profit.
  • Finding Funding: individuals and businesses make profits at many levels.
  • Each entity has the possibility to make or lose money.
financial analysis1
  • Either the people who are the owners of the event idea must risk their own money to stage and market the event, or they must find other who are willing to invest in or sponsor the event.
  • Owners/originators must have plan that will convince investors of the potential for profit. The plan must show..
    • What expenses will be incurred
    • How revenue will be produced from the sale of tickets and other items
financial analysis2
  • Investors generally provide funding for an event to cover all the costs that must be incurred before tickets are ever sold…
    • Ex: salaries for the cast and crew
    • Ex: costs of the facilities
    • Ex: costs of promoting the event to fans
    • Ex: other costs that go into making the event happen
  • Return on Investment (ROI): income from a venture that is distributed to investors.
financial analysis3
  • Money Sources…
    • Generated through ticket sales
    • Broadcast rights
    • Licensing
    • Facilities
  • Television networks generate revenue by selling commercial time to advertisers and by selling programs to affiliated stations.
where is the money
  • Decisions made about where and how to spend money impact profitability.
    • Financing involves budgeting, finding ways to pay the costs of doing business, and managing the costs.
    • Careful financial plans must be prepared and records must be kept.
    • Forecast is developed to predict expenses to be incurred and revenues to be received from the event.
    • Budget: a plan for how available funds will be spent
      • “Road Map” for spending – to control costs
financial statements
Financial Statements
  • Balance Sheet
    • Shows assets (items of value including cash, property, etc.)
    • Shows liabilities (purchases made on credit and loans)
    • Show company’s net worth
    • Specific time
  • Income Statement
    • Shows all revenues received
    • Shows all expenses incurred
    • Over a period of time
related articles1
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related articles2
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