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  1. Photo Album by Robert MacKay

  2. Sound waves are longitudinal waves • http://faraday.physics.utoronto.ca/IYearLab/Intros/StandingWaves/Flash/tunefork.html

  3. Audible range 20 – 20,000 Hzdecreases with age and damage

  4. Speed of sound in Air • Depends of the air temperature. Higher air temperture the higher the speed. • Depends of the molecular mass of air. Faster in helium, slower in air, and slower yet in Xenon.

  5. During a lightning storm the thunder is heard 6 seconds after the flash. How far away was the lightning strike?

  6. During a lightning storm the thunder is heard 6 seconds after the flash. How far away was the lightning strike? 2 km

  7. Speed of sound in Air • Depends of the air temperature. Higher air temperture the higher the speed. • Depends of the molecular mass of air. Faster in helium, slower in air, and slower yet in Xenon.

  8. During a lightning storm the thunder is heard 10 seconds after the flash. How far away was the lightning strike?

  9. During a lightning storm the thunder is heard 10 seconds after the flash. How far away was the lightning strike? 2 miles

  10. Speed of sound in solids • Depends of the elasticity of solid. The stiffer the solid the higher the speed. • Depends of the solid density. The lower a solid’s density the higher the speed.

  11. Beats • The beat frequency is the difference between two frequencies.

  12. Beats are used in tuning • when tuning a guitar a beat frequency of 3 Hz is heard when comparing the sound from the guitar to 256 Hz tuning fork. • What is the guitar string’s frequency?

  13. Beats are used in tuning • when tuning a guitar a beat frequency of 3 Hz is heard when comparing the sound from the guitar to 256 Hz tuning fork. • What is the guitar string’s frequency? 253 or 259 Hz (can’t say for sure which one)

  14. Beats are used in tuning • when tuning a guitar a beat frequency of 3 Hz is heard when comparing the sound from the guitar to 256 Hz tuning fork. The string is then slightly tightened and a beat frequency of 4 Hz is observed. • What is the guitar string’s frequency now?

  15. Beats are used in tuning • when tuning a guitar a beat frequency of 3 Hz is heard when comparing the sound from the guitar to 256 Hz tuning fork. The string is then slightly tightened and a beat frequency of 4 Hz is observed. • What is the guitar string’s frequency now?260 Hz

  16. Decibel Sound Level

  17. it’s actually easy • intensity 10 (101) louder 10 dB higher • intensity 100 (102) louder 20 dB higher • intensity 1000 (103) louder 30 dB higher • intensity 10,000 (104) louder 40 dB higher • intensity 1,000,000 (106) louder 60 dB higher