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Mobilizing for War. U.S. Enters WWI and Wilson Plans for Peace. America Mobilizes for War. The U.S. was still unprepared when war was declared in 1917. Americans were still unsure about which countries we trusted. Weapons, equipment and soldiers were needed to fight.

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mobilizing for war

Mobilizing for War

U.S. Enters WWI and Wilson Plans for Peace

america mobilizes for war
America Mobilizes for War
  • The U.S. was still unprepared when war was declared in 1917.
  • Americans were still unsure about which countries we trusted.
  • Weapons, equipment and soldiers were needed to fight.
  • In response to these problems, the gov’t. took control of many industries and ran the country similar to a large business.
wartime administrations
Wartime Administrations
  • War Industries Board: handled the purchasing of war materials for all the Allies.
    • Decided which goods would be purchased and for how much.
    • Actually convinced many U.S. businesses to change what they produced to help the war effort.
      • Example: an undergarment company began making grenade belts for soldiers.
      • It would be like Nike making combat boots for soldiers instead of tennis shoes.
administrations cont
Administrations Cont.
  • Fuel Administration: responsible for conserving natural resources like oil and coal for the war effort.
    • Convinced Americans to conserve fuel(lower house temperature a few degrees), daylight savings time, shortened work week for certain industries.
  • Railroad Administration: designed to coordinate all railroads so that materials could be transported more efficiently.
administrations cont1
Administrations Cont.
  • Food Administration:
    • Herbert Hoover was placed in charge of conserving government food reserves.
      • “Hooverizing” - Government encouragement for every American to conserve as much food as possible.
    • This way the gov’t. would purchase the excess left over and send it to the soldiers.
      • “Wheatless Mondays”, “Meatless Tuesdays”, and Victory Gardens (every American was encouraged to grow their own vegetables to conserve) were examples of ways to save.
administrations cont2
Administrations Cont.
  • The Committee on Public Information: Appointed to “sell the war to the American people”.
    • “Four-Minute Men”: people hired by the gov’t. to go door-to-door and spread information about the war to people.
      • Went to theaters and handed out pamphlets promoting the war effort.
    • Entertainment shows would be performed with all proceeds going to the war effort.
women in the workplace
Women in the Workplace
  • Women entered factories in large numbers for the first time.
    • Large amounts of wartime material was needed, but the millions of men who left for war had to be replaced.
    • These women felt the satisfaction of bringing home a paycheck and providing for their families for the first time, which led to early suffrage movements.
paying for the war
Paying for the War
  • Americans were encouraged to buy Liberty Bonds to support the war effort.
    • When you purchased a Liberty Bond the gov’t. would use that money specifically for the war effort.
  • Liberty Bond posters were placed everywhere to remind Americans to help support the war and also demonize the enemy.
    • Served as a sort of propaganda to justify the war effort and killing an evil enemy.
paying for the war cont
Paying for the War Cont.
  • Excess Profit Taxes
    • The government increased income taxes for those companies that made more money during the war.
    • This was because most of their wealth had come from increased gov’t. spending to buy wartime materials.
opposition to the war
Opposition to the War
  • The Espionage and Sedition Acts:
    • Placed heavy penalties on Americans who spread harmful information about the war or posed any threat to national security.
  • Loyalty Leagues:
    • Americans were encouraged to spy on their neighbors and report any information to local officials about possible German spies.
      • Many citizens remained in jail, even after the war, because of the accusations against them by local Loyalty League members.
      • Roughly 3,000 cases of Espionage and Sedition were sent to federal courts.
situation of the allies
Situation of the Allies
  • Russia: The Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, seized control of the Russian government in October 1917.
    • In March 1918, the Russians signed the Treaty of Brest Litovskwhich officially ended their involvement in WWI
  • American troops and industry provided the manpower and supplies needed to force German retreat.
    • Gen. John Pershing : was placed in charge of American forces during WWI. Responsible with coordinating troops and supplies for victory.
  • Germany was forced to surrender before any invasion reached their borders.
woodrow wilson
Woodrow Wilson
  • Was determined to keep America out of WWI, his re-election slogan in 1916 was “he kept us out of war”
  • Wilson was pre-occupied with a plan for peace and had begun working on it before the U.S. entered.
wilson s plan for peace
Wilson’s Plan for Peace
  • Wilson devised a plan for enduring peace called the 14 Points which called for the following:
    • disarmament of all countries involved in the war
    • freedom of the seas (solves U-Boat problem)
    • open diplomacy (ending alliances)
    • an international peace keeping organization
  • The League of Nations: The goal of the League was to maintain open understanding and peace among all nations involved
peace conferences
Peace Conferences
  • There were 27 countries in attendance at the peace Conferences at the Palace in Versailles.
    • However, most important meetings were held in Paris.
    • Woodrow Wilson personally attended the Conference.
  • Leaders from France, Britain, the U.S., and Italy controlled many of the meetings and became known as the “Big Four”
    • Woodrow Wilson: U.S.
    • David Lloyd George: Prime Minister of Great Britain
    • Georges Clemenceau: French Premier
    • Vittorio Orlando: Italian Premier
problems with wilson s plan
Problems with Wilson’s Plan
  • Wilson was initially able to convince many of the countries with his 14 Points.
    • Unfortunately, Wilson’s plan lost support in Congress while he was away in Paris.
    • Republican opponents convinced everyone that the League of Nations would decrease America’s ability to make our own decisions.
  • Without the support from his own country, Wilson’s 14 Points and the League of Nations ultimately failed after brief success.
the treaty of versailles
The Treaty of Versailles
  • Ultimately the Allies devised a Peace agreement of their own and each signed it.
  • The Treaty of Versailles: officially ended WWI on November 11, 1918.
    • 1. Broke up Austria-Hungary into two separate countries.
    • 2. Took away all German colonies and disarmed their military.
    • 3. Forced Germany to pay all war debts, including those of the Allies, because they were seen as the aggressors who started the conflict.
america after the war
America After the War
  • Unemployment rose sharply in the U.S. as the military demobilized from the war and production slowed back down.
  • The Red Scare: fear that a communist revolt similar to Russia would occur in America as a result of labor unrest after the war.
  • The U.S. never signed the Treaty of Versailles, instead we signed individual agreements with each of the Central Powers.