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African Independence PowerPoint Presentation
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African Independence

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African Independence - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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African Independence
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  1. African Independence

  2. X By 1900 only 2 African Nations remained independent... • Ethiopia • Liberia

  3. X

  4. X Roots of Independence Movement • Desire for freedom never abandoned • Post WW1 &WW2 movements • American Civil Rights Movement • Nasser & Arab Nationalism

  5. Traditional Colony Colonial Government Export Based Economy European Settled Colony Colonial Government Export Based Economy White Minority Rule Legalized Discrimination Struggle for Independence

  6. Ghana Becomes Independent • 1957 • Lead by Kwame Nkrumah • 1st Colony to Achieve Independence • Avoids Tribal Conflicts Kwame Nkrumah

  7. OAU Nkrumah & WEB de Bois work on Pan-African Movement • Nhrumah founded the OAU--Organization of African Unity • worked to promote African economic independence

  8. Rebellion in Kenya • British colony of Kenya heavily settled by White farmers • Took land from Kikuyu and Masai people

  9. Mau Mau Rebellion • Mau Mau called themselves the Land & Freedom Party • protested for Independence • mass arrests

  10. Jomo Kenyatta • Kikuyu leader • arrested for “terrorism” • imprisoned for 8 years • became President of Kenya

  11. Jomo Kenyatta • Kenya becomes strongest democracy in Africa • Kenyatta made Kenya an economic success • He stays in power too long = corruption & abuse

  12. Ending Apartheid in South Africa • African National Congress • Political Party • began fight against Apartheid

  13. Apartheid • Non-white population not allowed to live in white cities • Forced them to work long distances from where their families could live

  14. Nelson Mandela • Leader of ANC • arrested and jailed for 28 years • 120 ANC leaders were jailed

  15. The Years of Struggle • 1960: Sharpeville Massacre • Stay at Home Campaign • 1976: Soweto Uprising

  16. Steve Biko • Biko organized student protests against Apartheid • banned person • Smuggled his writings out • beaten to death by police

  17. Bishop Desmond Tutu • Anglican minister who led international protest against Apartheid • South Africa sanctioned

  18. Impact of Sanctions • Worldwide Protest against Apartheid • Ban on Trade & Banking • Financial Crisis in South Africa

  19. F.W. de Klerk & Nelson Mandela • De Klerk, white prime minister • negotiated with Mandela • released him from Prison • made agreement for free elections with all South African’s allowed to vote

  20. South Africa Avoids Bloodbath

  21. South African Independence • 1994: first free elections • Nelson Mandela elected President of South Africa • 1994 to present: South Africans work to create economic equality • tribunal: trials for criminal acts under Apartheid

  22. Problems Faced By Independent Africa • Debt from Colonial Period • Pressure from World Bank to grow colonial export crop to pay off debt. • Ethnic conflict • Health Issues • Clean Water • High Infant Mortality Rate • Aids