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Motives for European Exploration

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  1. Motives for European Exploration The Three G’s

  2. Gold: Economy • Europeans need a direct route to Africa and Asia to make more $$$ • Muslims controlled land routes to Asia & interior of Africa • cut out middleman = $$ • Resources • Spices from Asia prevented meats from spoiling • Gold & ivory from Africa would bring wealth & power to Europeans • Land to cultivate & slaves to work land

  3. God: Religion Every time Europeans wanted to trade with China or India they had to pass through Ottoman trading posts; this meant that they had to give money to the Muslims. If money = power, who was getting powerful in this deal? By Columbus’ time (1492) the last of the Muslim Strongholds in Spain had been defeated,this led to a Shift in European focus… Pre 1517 - The focus of Europe was fighting the Muslims After 1517 - Their focus is on spreading Christianity to new lands… you can’t let the heretics get to them first! New Testament commands Christians to spread the Gospel

  4. Glory: For the glory of the king! The way to make the country more powerful was to increase it’s wealth. You do this by getting as much as you can. If you didn’t get the wealth someone else would! They would win and you would lose! The more wealth a country had = more power in war! Victory over your enemies was everything!

  5. What allowed the Europeans to cross oceans? 1. By 1400s Portugal is building good ships, and making accurate sea charts. 2. With the use of the compass and astrolabe, the Portuguese are able to navigate well. 3. Improved weapons gave Europeans an advantage: cannons & guns 4. Combining old designs together the Portuguese were able to make a small, fast, and maneuverable ship design… Early Chinese ships had triangle sails, allowing them to cut through wind currents… Viking ships had square sails to capture the wind…

  6. Carrack The Portuguese combined the 2 sail designs to come up with their own design. This design was later Modified by the Spanish… The Galleon…

  7. European Players During the Age of Discovery1400-1600

  8. Major Players Portugal * monarchy * Begin exploration of the coast of Africa as early as 1415. * Searching for resources & land suitable for crowing cash crops. *Explorers: Dias, Da Gama, Magellan were famous Portuguese explorers Impact: * Controlled Eastern sea routes to Asia * Colonize Brazil for land * By the mid 1500s, start taking Africans as slaves to colonies (Start of Atlantic Slave Trade)

  9. Major Players Spain *monarchy * Wanted to expand their knowledge of the world, find spices, build a larger empire, and spread Christianity * Needed gold to fund wars (Ottomans) * Columbus, Nunez de Balboa, and Cortes were famous explorers for Spain Impact * Columbus actually discovers land between Europe & Asia; the “New World” * This discovery completely changes Europeans’ view of the world * Spain establishes colonies in the West Indies to grow crops

  10. Major Players France *monarchy * French exploration doesn’t begin until 1515 * French set out looking for northwest passage to India, expand their empire, find gold and spices, also wanted animal furs *Jacques Marquette and Samuel de Champlain famous French Explorers Impact * French exploration focused on the interior regions of North America establishing a thriving commercial trade of furs and fish, rather than planting permanent settlements (colonies)

  11. Major Players England *monarchy * English don’t start exploring until the end of the 15th century (1480s). * English wanted gold, spices, land to build and Empire. * English take a northern route across the Atlantic *Sir Francis Drake, John Cabot, Henry Hudson were famous English explorers Impact * Discovery of land in North America that would be used for future colonies