DNA Microarrays What are they? Before we answer that first take 1 min to write down what you know about Gene Expression then share your thoughts in groups `. Did you consider gene expression in the context of normal cells of different types and also cancer cells compared to normal cells? .
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DNA Microarrays What are they?Beforewe answer that first take 1 min to write down what you know about Gene Expression then share your thoughts in groups`
Did you consider gene expression in the context of normal cells of different types and also cancer cells compared to normal cells?
Brown Cancer Video
Did you consider gene expression in the context of it being a complex form of communication as in a LANGUAGE?
Brown Genome Video
Although all of the cells in the human body contain identical genetic material, the same genes are not active in every cell. Studying which genes are active ( EXPRESSED ) and which are inactive ( NOT EXPRESSED ) in different cell types helps scientists to understand both how these cells function normally and how they are affected when various genes do not perform properly.
Microarrays what are they?
A technique where 1000’s of spots of DNA(genes) anchored to a slide are hybridized with sample DNA to reveal differences in the levels of expression. Key message: 1000’s of experiments at the same time.
DNA microarrays are created by robotic machines that arrange minuscule amounts of hundreds or thousands of gene sequences on a single microscope slide. Researchers have a database of over 40,000 gene sequences that they can use for this purpose. When a gene is activated, cellular machinery begins to copy certain segments of that gene. The resulting product is known as messenger RNA (mRNA), which is the body's template for creating proteins. The mRNA produced by the cell is complementary, and therefore will bind to the original portion of the DNA strand from which it was copied.
DNA MICROARRAYS are prepared using known genes of interest. They are then reacted with sample DNA from typically two contrasting sample types such as normal and diseased
To determine which genes are turned on and which are turned off in a given cell, a researcher must first collect the messenger RNA molecules present in that cell. The researcher then labels each mRNA molecule by using a reverse transcriptase enzyme (RT) that generates a complementary cDNA to the mRNA. During that process fluorescent nucleotides are attached to the cDNA. The tumour and the normal samples are labelled with different fluorescent dyes. Next, the researcher places the labelled cDNAs onto a DNA microarray slide. The labelled cDNAs that represent mRNAs in the cell will then hybridize – or bind – to their synthetic complementary DNAs attached on the microarray slide, leaving its fluorescent tag. A researcher must then use a special scanner to measure the fluorescent intensity for each spot/areas on the microarray slide.
Researchers frequently use this technique to examine the activity of various genes at different times. When co-hybridizing Tumour samples (Red Dye) and Normal sample (Green dye) together, they will compete for the synthetic complementary DNAs on the microarray slide. As a result, if the spot is red, this means that that specific gene is more expressed in tumour than in normal (up-regulated in cancer). If a spot is Green, that means that that gene is more expressed in the Normal tissue (Down regulated in cancer). If a spot is yellow that means that that specific gene is equally expressed in normal and tumourSO WHAT is the future and why should I know about DNA MICROARRAYS?Personalised medicine early diagnosis of cancer
homeworkresearch this term and write 100 -200 words which describe why DNA microarrays might play a role in this form of medical treatment
Cancer Diagnostics and early detection