Genome. Complete set of instructions for making an organism master blueprints for all enzymes, cellular structures & activities an organism‘s complete set of DNA The total genetic information carried by a single set of chromosomes in a haploid nucleus
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4000 genes X 1 kbp/gene=4 Mbp
Extra chromosomal circular DNAs
Plant makes all 3 compounds
Auxins and cytokines cause gall formation
Opines provide unique carbon/nitrogen source only A. tumefaciens can use!
50,000 genes X 2 kbp=100 Mbp
Five functional genes and two pseudogenes
Genome: all of an organism’s genes plus intergenicDNA
Intergenic DNA = DNA between genes
mitochondria (~ 100)
1e1 1e2 1e3 1e4 1e5 1e6 1e7 1e8 1e9 1e10 1e11 1e12
Size in nucleotides. Number in ( ) = completely sequenced genomes
DNA sequence encoding protein
What are the problems with this definition?
Nucleotides (open reading frame) encoding the amino acid sequence of a protein
The molecular definition of gene includes more than just the coding region
Entire nucleic acid sequence necessary for the synthesis of a functional polypeptide (protein chain) or functional RNA
Polycistronic mRNA encodes several proteins
What would be the effect of a mutation in the control region (a) compared to a mutation in a structural gene (b)?
Hemoglobin beta subunit gene
Introns: intervening sequences within a gene that are not translated
into a protein sequence. Collagen has 50 introns.
Exons: sequences within a gene that encode protein sequences
Splicing: Removal of introns from the mRNA molecule.