slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Development of Pesticide against Asian Longhorned Beetles ( Anoplophora glabripennis ) Using Entomopathogenic Fungi a PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Development of Pesticide against Asian Longhorned Beetles ( Anoplophora glabripennis ) Using Entomopathogenic Fungi a

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 48

Development of Pesticide against Asian Longhorned Beetles ( Anoplophora glabripennis ) Using Entomopathogenic Fungi a - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 207 Views
  • Uploaded on

Development of Pesticide against Asian Longhorned Beetles ( Anoplophora glabripennis ) Using Entomopathogenic Fungi and Nematodes . SBIO 599. Outline. Introduction History New York’s Battle Asian Longhorned Beetle Development of Pest Control Insecticides

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Development of Pesticide against Asian Longhorned Beetles ( Anoplophora glabripennis ) Using Entomopathogenic Fungi a' - dusan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Development of Pesticide against Asian Longhorned Beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis) Using Entomopathogenic Fungi and Nematodes.

SBIO 599

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
    • History
    • New York’s Battle
    • Asian Longhorned Beetle
  • Development of Pest Control
    • Insecticides
    • Fungus: Beauveria brongniartii
    • Fungal product
    • Nematodes
  • Conclusion
history
Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) is native to China and Korea.

ALB have caused serious damage on poplar (Populus) and many trees have been killed in Asia.

History
new york s battle
New York’s Battle
  • In 1996, ALB was discovered in Brooklyn, NY.
  • Over 1000 trees have been removed, chipped, or burned in first year.
  • Probably kill 30% of all urban trees – economic impact of more than $40 billion in damages.
asian longhorned beetle
Asian Longhorned Beetle
  • Morphology

- (L) 20-35 mm x (W) 6-12 mm

    • Black shiny body
    • Long antennae
    • White spots
    • Life Cycle

Egg --> Larva --> Pupa --> Adult

It requires 1-2 years to develop

from egg to adult

alb cont
ALB -cont.
  • Biology

- fly ~300m in a single flight

- live for up to 60 days

- adult activity peaking in July

* Adults mate on the trunks of host trees

* Female lays eggs inside of trees

* Eggs hatch with in 1-2 weeks

* Larvae feed deep inside of trees and transform to pupae and then adults.

* The new generation of adults exit through 6-18 mm holes by chewing host trees.

why should we care
Why should we care?

(USDA, 2001) 7

outline1
Outline
  • Introduction
    • History
    • New York’s Battle
    • Asian Longhorned Beetle
  • Development of Pest Control
    • Insecticides
    • Fungus: Beauveria brongniartii
    • Fungal product
    • Nematodes
  • Conclusion
insecticides
Insecticides
  • For the pest control of ALB, several chemical insecticides were tested in US.
  • Imidacloprid is an insecticide manufactured by Bayer. It is sold under a variety of trade names including Admire, Advantage, and Gaucho.
  • However, none of these insecticides worked well for controlling ALB.

molecular formula of Imidacloprid

outline2
Outline

Introduction

History

New York’s Battle

Asian Longhorned Beetle

Development of Pest Control

Insecticides

Fungi

Fungal product

Nematodes

Conclusion

10

entomopathogenic fungi
Entomopathogenic Fungi

Net mortality of the inoculated adults increased after around day 6.

Many adults inoculated with both F-1101 and F-263 were infected and killed in moderate numbers.

slide13

LC50 were calculated from net mortalities to evaluate the infectivity of the fungi

  • The LC50 of B. brongniartii F-1101 to adults of ALB was around 104 conidia/ml.
outline3
Outline

Introduction

History

New York’s Battle

Asian Longhorned Beetle

Development of Pest Control

Insecticides

Fungus: Beauveria brongniartii

Fungal product

Nematodes

Conclusion

14

slide15
Development of fungal product as new commerciogenic insecticideHiguchi et al. (1997), Dubois et al. (2004), and Hajek et al. (2006).
field tests of sheet cultures1
Field Tests of Sheet Cultures

(Higuchi et al., 1997) 18

conclusion
Conclusion
  • The sheet cultures clearly provide a useful method of controlling ALB population by decreasing the proliferation, and it had high infectivity to ALB (Higuchi et al. 1997).
material and method
Material and Method

Two sheet cultures of B. brongniartii were used:

  • NBL 851(fungus was isolated from the cadaver of an Yellowspotted longicorn beetle, Psacothea hilaris)
  • WU 20 (fungus was isolated from the cadaver of an ALB)

The number of oviposition per female estimated by

Sum of all oviposition scars / Sum of all exit holes x 0.5

(Dubois et al., 2004) 21

field tests of sheet cultures cont
Field Tests of Sheet Cultures -cont.
  • Two sheet cultures of B. brongniartii were used: NBL 851(fungus was isolated from the cadaver of an Psacothea hilaris) and WU 20 (fungus was isolated from the cadaver of an ALB)
conclusion1
Conclusion
  • The sheet cultures clearly provide a viable method of controlling reproductivity.
  • The sheet culture decreased population of ALB due to…

- decreased reproduction by killing females before laying eggs

- decreased female lifespan

(Dubois et al., 2004) 23

slide25
M&M
  • 2 different fungal bands were tested
    • B. brongniartii NBL-851(isolated from P. hilaris) and Metarhizium anisopliae VD-1 (isolated from ALB)
  • Chi-squared tests were used to compare observed reproduction in treatments with controls.
field tests of sheet cultures2
Field Tests of Sheet Cultures

The number of Oviposition/female in both fungal treatments were approximately half those found in controls (chi-suared test: P < 0.05)

conclusion2
Conclusion
  • The sheet cultures clearly provide a viable method of controlling reproductivity.
  • The sheet culture decreased population of ALB due to…

- decreased reproduction by killing females before laying eggs

- decreased female lifespan

(Hajek et al. 2006) 27

entomopathogenic fungi1
Entomopathogenic Fungi
  • The sheet culture containing entomopathogenic fungi controls adult ALB due to decrease their lifespan and reproduction.
  • However, it was NOT effective to ALB Larvae.
outline4
Outline

Introduction

History

New York’s Battle

Asian Longhorned Beetle

Development of Pest Control

Insecticides

Fungus: Beauveria brongniartii

Fungal product

Nematodes

Conclusion

31

m m filter paper bioassay
M&M (filter paper bioassay)

(Solter et al. 2001) 33

slide34

8 /10

8 /10

2 /10

1 /10

(Solter et al. 2001) 34

conclusion3
Conclusion
  • S.carpocapsae and H. marelatus had highest infectivity and mortality against ALB larvae.
  • The larvae exposed to S.carpocapsae and H. marelatus died quickly.
  • LD50 (median lethal dose) was ~19 nematodes for ALB larvae.
  • S.carpocapsae and H. marelatus had an ability to invade, kill, and reproduce in ALB larvae.

(Solter et al. 2001) 35

m m filter paper and diet cup bioassay
M&M (filter paper and diet cup bioassay)

(Fallon et al. 2004 & 2006) 37

slide38
Fig. 3. Mortality (bar) and nematode infectivity (line) of A. glabripennis larvae exposed to S. feltiae, S. riobrave, S. carpocapsae, S. glaseri, H. marelata, and water on filter paper (A), and in diet cups bioassay (B).

Single larvae were each exposed to 100 IJs (N = 7 larvae/ treatment).

Line points headed with the same letter are not different among treatments [P < 0.0001; (A), P < 0:0001; (B) ].

Bars headed by an ‘‘*’’ are significantly different from the control (P > 0.05).

(Fallon et al. 2004) 38

results
Results
  • S.carpocapsae and S. feltiae had highest infectivity and mortality against ALB and cottonwood borer larvae.
  • The larvae exposed to S.carpocapsae and S. feltiae died quickly against ALB larvae.
  • LD50 (median lethal dose) was 9-17 nematodes for ALB larvae.

(Solter et al. 2001) 40

conclusion4
Conclusion
  • S.carpocapsae and S. feltiae had an ability to invade, kill, and reproduce in ALB larvae and cottonwood borer larvae.
  • Moreover, the percent mortality against cottonwood borer showed ~50%. Solter et al. (2006) suggested that S.carpocapsae and S. feltiae may have an ability to invade to more specific insect.

(Solter et al. 2001) 41

outline5
Outline

Introduction

History

New York’s Battle

Asian Longhorned Beetle

Development of Pest Control

Insecticides

Fungus

Fungal product

Nematodes

Conclusion

43

summary fungi
Summary (Fungi)
  • B. brongniartii against ALB were highly effective as a insecticide (Shimazu et al., 2002).
  • The sheet culture of B. brongniartii in field trials demonstrated that adults ALB were infected and died more quickly and fewer reproduction (Dubois et al. 2004; Higuchi et al. 1997; Hajek et al. 2006).
  • These results suggest that this unique application method holds promise for controlling the Asian Longhorned Beetle.
summary nematodes
Summary (Nematodes)

Nematodes (H. marelatus,S. carpocapsae, and S. feltiae ) were highly effective against ALB larvae (Solter et al. 2001; Fallon et al. 2004).

The LD50 examination showed a potential to be commercialized as a pesticides (Solter et al. 2001; Fallon et al. 2004).

These results suggest that the liquid culture of entomopathogenic nematodes could be a great product for controlling the Asian Longhorned Beetle.

45

conclusion5
Conclusion
  • Using biopesticides containing entomopathogenic fungi or nematodes has a great potential to control ALB and other pest instead of removing, chipping, or burning of infested host trees.
  • These studies provide a means of making possible a more effective pesticide in regions where chemical methods were previously inapplicable.
slide47

THANK YOU!!

Questions?

references
References
  • Dubois T., Zengzhi Li, Hu Jiafu, and Ann E. Hajek. 2004. Efficacy fiber bands impregnated with Beauveria brongniartii cultures against the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cermbycidae). Biological Control 31: 320-328.
  • Fallon J. Declan, Leellen F. Solter, Leah S. Bauer, Deborah L. Miller, James R. Cate, and Michael McManus. 2006. Effect of entomopathogenic nematodes on Plectrodera scalator (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Cermbycidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 92: 55-57.
  • Fallon J. Declan, Leellen F. Solter, Melody Keena, Michael McManus, James R. Cate, and Lawrence M. Hanks. 2004. Susceptibility of Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motchulsky) (Coleoptera: Cermbycidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes. Biological Control 30: 430-438.
  • Haack, Robert A., Kenneth R. Law, Victor C. Mastro, Sharon H. Ossenburgen, Bernard Raimo, J. 1997. New York's battle with the Asian long-horned beetle. Journal of Forestry 95 (12): 11-15.
  • Hajek, A. E., B. Huang, T. Dubois, M. T. Smith, and Z. Li. 2006. Field studies of control of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cermbycidae) using fiber bands containing the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria brongniartii. Biocontrol Science and Technology 16 (4): 329-343.
  • Higuchi Toshio, Takeshi Saika, Shuji Senda, Tomohiro Mizobata, Yasushi Kawata, and Jun Nagai. 1997. Development of biorational pest control formulation against longicorn beetles using a fungus, Beauveria brongniartii (Sacc.) Petch. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 84: 236-243.
  • Rynk, Robert. 2003. Meet the beetles. BioCycle 44 (4): 46-51.
  • Shimizu Mitsuaki, Zhang Bo, and Liu Yi-ning. 2002. Fungal Pathogens of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and Their Virulences. Shinrin SougouKenkyuujyo Kenkyuhoukoku1 (382): 123-130.
  • Solter, L. F., Melody K., James R. C., Michael L. M., and Lawrence M. H. 2001.Infectivity of Four Species of Nematodes (Rhabditoidea: Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) to the Asian Longhorn Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motchulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology 11: 547-552.
  • United States Department of Agriculture. 2001. Wanted: The Asian Longhorned Beetle. USDA-APHIS Program Aid No. 1655: 1-16.