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Introduction to Classification & Ocean Life. Introduction. When you go shopping in the grocery store, similar items are often placed on the same aisle. Why? They are most often related to each other.

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introduction to classification ocean life

Introduction to Classification & Ocean Life

Created & Designed by S. Harrington

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introduction
Introduction
  • When you go shopping in the grocery store, similar items are often placed on the same aisle. Why? They are most often related to each other.
  • In science, classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities.
  • In this chapter you will learn how scientists classify living things.
  • You will also learn about the six kingdoms into which all living things are classified.

Created & Designed by S. Harrington

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taxonomy
Taxonomy
  • Scientists classify the diverse number of organisms on the planet in order to learn and study from them.
  • Taxonomy is the field of biology thatidentifies(gives organisms a name) and classifies organisms based on shared characteristics.

http://www.cartoonstock.com/newscartoons/cartoonists/cga/lowres/cgan893l.jpg

Created & Designed by S. Harrington

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binomial nomenclature
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Scientists give animals Latin names during classifications which consists of two parts; the genus and species names put together.
  • They use Latin because it is universal (worldwide) and it is not widely spoken and, therefore, the meanings of the word are not likely to change.
  • Means “two-part naming”
    • EX Tyrannosaurus rex translates to “tyrant lizard” and “king.”

Created & Designed by S. Harrington

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rules for binomial nomenclature
Rules for Binomial Nomenclature
  • Always written in Latin and in italics.
  • Genus name is written first and is capitalized.
  • Species name is written second and is NOT capitalized.
  • Correctly written scientific names
    • Homo sapiens (modern man)
    • Felisdomesticus (common housecat)

Created & Designed by S. Harrington

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purpose for classification
Purpose for Classification
  • A Latin name eliminates confusion caused by common name differences.
    • EX: crayfish, crawdad, mudbug are all common names for….
    • Cambarusbartoni

http://bwrc.eecs.berkeley.edu/People/Grad_Students/huifangq/food/HuifangCookings/edited/crawfish.jpg

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slide7

Mountain lion, panther, cougar and puma are all common names for...

  • Felis concolor

http://wdfw.wa.gov/wlm/game/cougar/graphics/cougar4.jpg

Created & Designed by S. Harrington

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carl von linne carolus linnaeus
Carl von Linne (Carolus Linnaeus)
  • Von Linnewas the Swedish biologist who in the mid-1700’s developed the biological system of classification with 7 taxonomic levels (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, & species).

http://www.ub.uit.no/northernlights/images/linne06d.jpg

Created & Designed by S. Harrington

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modern levels of classification
Modern Levels of Classification
  • Domain is the most recently added 8th taxonomiclevel, which is even more inclusive than a kingdom.

https://eapbiofield.wikispaces.com/file/view/classi6.jpg

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purpose for classification cont
Purpose for Classification cont.

http://www.imagequest3d.com/stock/taxon/taxonomy_r2_c1.gif

2. Classification organizes large amounts of information into manageable levels.

3. Classification also reveals (or shows) evolutionary relationships between organisms.

Created & Designed by S. Harrington

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levels of classification
Levels of Classification
  • Domain
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/garden/mg/entomology/images/p4large.gif

Created & Designed by S. Harrington

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mnemonic device
Mnemonic Device
  • D = …
  • K = …
  • P = …
  • C = …
  • O = …
  • F = …
  • G = …
  • S = …

Directions:

  • Create an Mnemonic Device to remember the levels of classification.
  • Use the first letter for each level to create a rhythm, poem or saying to remember the order.

Created & Designed by S. Harrington

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levels of classification1
Levels of Classification
  • Kingdom is the second level. (EX Plants or Animals)

http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/139427_Five_Kingdoms.jpg

  • These organisms have similar characteristics such as: cell structure, level of specialization and method of obtaining nutrients.

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levels of classification2
Levels of Classification
  • Species is the LAST, most specific unit of classification where members can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.

http://jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu/lab/TaxonomyLab.html

Created & Designed by S. Harrington

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domain eukarya
Domain Eukarya
  • All of the organisms that have a nucleus (eukaryotes) in Domain Eukarya.
  • This domain includes a variety of life forms in the kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.

http://www.biocentrum.dtu.dk/upload/institutter/bic/biocentrum/studievalg/his_archaea_fot3_380.jpg

Created & Designed by S. Harrington

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domain bacteria
Domain Bacteria
  • Bacteria includes common strains such as Streptococcus and E. coli.
  • Includes Kingdom Eubacteria.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/olmedia/300000/images/_300835_e_coli300.jpg

Created & Designed by S. Harrington

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domain archaea
Domain Archaea
  • Members of the domain Archaea (derived from Greek for “ancient”) and may be the oldest life forms on Earth!
  • They live in very extreme environments (hot volcanic springs, black organic mud, etc) and can only survive in the absence of oxygen!
  • Includes Kingdom Archaebacteria

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kingdom eubacteria
Kingdom Eubacteria
  • Unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus!)
  • The microscopic bacteria live in the soil, in water, and in and on the human body!

http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/6/6d/320px-Prokaryote_cell_diagram.svg.png

  • Some bacteria is used to convert milk to yogurt and another causes pneumonia.

Created & Designed by S. Harrington

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kingdom archaebacteria
Kingdom Archaebacteria
  • Ancient unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus!)
  • These bacteria are all autotrophs (make their own food) and live in very extreme, often hostile environments.
  • This Yellowstone spring is 194 degrees Fahrenheit!

http://people.uncw.edu/tobiasc/Grand_Prismatic_Spring.jpg

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kingdom protista
Kingdom Protista
  • Single and Multicellular Eukaryotes (nucleus & organelles)
  • Some autotrophs and some heterotrophs
  • EX: amoebas, algae, kelp

http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20102/Bio%20102%20lectures/protists/amoeba_proteus_X_100.jpg

http://www.dirtworks.net/Images/NeptunesHarvest/Kelp.jpg

http://www.bioremediate.com/lyngbya.jpg

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kingdom fungi
Kingdom Fungi
  • Molds, mildews, and mushrooms are examples of the kingdom Fungi.
  • Unicellular or multicellular eukaryotes
  • All heterotrophs – they do not use photosynthesis to create food!

http://www.shutterfreaks.com/albums2/album225/mushroom.jpg

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kingdom plantae
Kingdom Plantae
  • Plants are complex multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls and create their food using photosynthesis (thus the green color!).
  • Non-motile (do not move)
  • EX: mosses, ferns, flowering and cone-bearing plants

http://byandlarge.net/scuttlebutt/images/neighbourhood/bird-of-paradise.jpg

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kingdom animalia
Kingdom Animalia
  • The kingdom Animalia contain multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs.
  • At the microscopic level, animal cells are different because they do NOT have cell walls.
  • EX: sponges, jellyfish, worms, insects, animals

http://www.mccullagh.org/db9/d30-20/jellyfish-7.jpg

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dichotomous key
Dichotomous Key
  • Taxonomists have developed special guides called dichotomous keys to help to identify organisms.
  • A dichotomous key consists of several pairs of descriptive statements to help identify an unknown organism.

http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/caer/ce/eek/critter/watercritter/images/keymap_template.gif

Created & Designed by S. Harrington

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