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EE 543 Theory and Principles of Remote Sensing

EE 543 Theory and Principles of Remote Sensing

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EE 543 Theory and Principles of Remote Sensing

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  1. EE 543Theory and Principles of Remote Sensing Topic 1 – Review of Vector Calculus

  2. Outline Ref: • Vectors and vector addition • Unit vectors • Base vectors and vector components • Rectangular coordinates in 2-D • Rectangular coordinates in 3-D • A vector connecting two points • Dot product • Cross product • Triple product • Triple vector product • Operators and Theorems O. Kilic EE543

  3. Vector Definition •  A scalar is a quantity like mass or temperature that only has a magnitude. • On the other had, a vector is a mathematical object that has magnitudeanddirection, e.g. velocity, force. • A line of given length and pointing along a given direction, such as an arrow, is the typical representation of a vector. O. Kilic EE543

  4. Vector Notation • Typical notation to designate a vector is a boldfaced character, a character with and arrow on it, or a character with a line under it (i.e., A, ). • The magnitude of a vector is its length and is normally denoted by . O. Kilic EE543

  5. Vector Addition • Addition of two vectors is accomplished by laying the vectors head to tail in sequence to create a triangle. O. Kilic EE543

  6. Vector Algebra Rules P and Q are vectors and a is a scalar O. Kilic EE543

  7. Unit Vectors • A unit vector is a vector of unit length. • A unit vector is sometimes denoted by replacing the arrow on a vector with a "^" or just adding a "^" on a boldfaced character. and O. Kilic EE543

  8. Unit Vectors(2) • Any vector can be made into a unit vector by dividing it by its length. • Any vector can be fully represented by • providing its magnitude and a unit vector along • its direction. O. Kilic EE543

  9. Base Vectors • The base vectors of a rectangular coordinate system are given by a set of three mutually orthogonal unit vectors denoted by and that are along the x, y, and z coordinate directions, respectively. O. Kilic EE543

  10. Components Along Basis Vectors • In a rectangular coordinate system the components of the vector are the projections of the vector along the x, y, and z directions. • For example, in the figure the projections of vector A along the x, y, and z directions are given by Ax, Ay, and Az, respectively. The magnitude can be calculated by O. Kilic EE543

  11. Direction Cosines • The direction cosines can be calculated from the components of the vector and its magnitude through the relations O. Kilic EE543

  12. Unit Vector Construction • A unit vector can be constructed along a vector using the direction cosines as its components along the x, y, and z directions: O. Kilic EE543

  13. Vector Connecting Two Points • The vector connecting point A to point B is given by Aunit vector along the line A-B can be obtained from O. Kilic EE543

  14. Example 1 Addition of two vectors • Add the two vectors: • What is the magnitude of the resulting vector? • What is its angle with respect to the x-axis? O. Kilic EE543

  15. Solution 1 y A a x C B O. Kilic EE543

  16. Example 2 Addition of three vectors: • Add the vectors: • What is the magnitude of the resulting vector? • What is its angle with respect to the x-axis? O. Kilic EE543

  17. Solution 2 O. Kilic EE543

  18. Example 3 Magnitude and angles of a vector Find the magnitude and angles with respect of x, y and z axis of the vector: O. Kilic EE543

  19. Solution 3 O. Kilic EE543

  20. Dot Product • The dot product is denoted by “.” between two vectors. The dot product of vectors A and B results in a scalar given by the relation Order is not important in the dot product Commutative O. Kilic EE543

  21. Dot Product Properties The angle between a vector and itself is zero. Thus: Equals 1 when A = B O. Kilic EE543

  22. Dot Product in Rectangular Coordinates i, j, k are orthogonal vectors i.i = j.j = k.k = 1 O. Kilic EE543

  23. Example 4 Dot Product Find the dot product of the two vectors: What is the separation angle between A and B? O. Kilic EE543

  24. Solution 4 =1 O. Kilic EE543

  25. Projection O. Kilic EE543

  26. Cross Product (Vector Product) • The cross product of vectors a and b is a vector perpendicular to botha and b and has a magnitude equal to the area of the parallelogram generated from a and b. • The direction of the cross product is given by the right-hand rule . The cross product is denoted by a “X" between the vectors O. Kilic EE543

  27. Right Hand Rule O. Kilic EE543

  28. Cross Product (2) O. Kilic EE543

  29. Cross Product(3) • Order is important in the cross product. • If the order of operations changes in a cross product the direction of the resulting vector is reversed. O. Kilic EE543

  30. Properties of Cross Product O. Kilic EE543

  31. Cross Product in Rectangular Coordinates z y x Right Hand Rule O. Kilic EE543

  32. Example Find the cross product of the two vectors: O. Kilic EE543

  33. Solution O. Kilic EE543

  34. Solution 2* * Valid only for Cartesian coordinates. O. Kilic EE543

  35. The Triple Product • The triple product of vectors a, b, and c is given by and is a scalar quantity • The triple product has the following properties O. Kilic EE543

  36. Triple Product in Rectangular Coordinates O. Kilic EE543

  37. Triple Vector Product O. Kilic EE543

  38. Vectors in Electromagnetics • In em, we typically deal with vectors that are functions of position for a given direction. Therefore, vector components along x, y and z are not constant. • The rate of change along a given direction is important in em. Electric and magnetic fields are related to each other through a differential operator. O. Kilic EE543

  39. Main operators in vector calculus • Divergence • Gradient • Curl • Laplacian O. Kilic EE543

  40. Vector Differentiation - Operator • One of the most important and useful mathematical constructs is the "del operator", usually denoted by (which is called the "nabla"). • This can be regarded as a vector whose components in the three principle directions of a Cartesian coordinate system are partial differentiations with respect to those three directions. O. Kilic EE543

  41. Operator • All the main operations of vector calculus, namely, the divergence, the gradient, the curl, and the Laplacian can be constructed from this single operator. • The entities on which we operate may be either scalar fields or vector fields. O. Kilic EE543

  42. The Gradient (Scalar to vector) • If we simply multiply a scalar field such as p(x,y,z) by the del operator, the result is a vector field, and the components of the vector at each point are just the partial derivatives of the scalar field at that point, i.e., O. Kilic EE543

  43. The Divergence (Scalar Product, Dot Product) (Vector to scalar) • The divergence of a vector field v(x,y,z) = vx(x,y,z)i + vy(x,y,z)j + vz(x,y,z)k is a scalar O. Kilic EE543

  44. The Curl (Vector Product, Cross Product) (Vector to vector) • The curl of a vector field v(x,y,z) = vx(x,y,z)i + vy(x,y,z)j + vz(x,y,z)k is a vector: In Cartesian coordinates O. Kilic EE543

  45. The Laplacian Operator (Scalar to scalar) • This is sometimes called the "div grad" of a scalar field, and is given by • For convenience we usually denote this operator by the symbol 2 O. Kilic EE543

  46. Stoke’s Theorem • The line integral of a vector along a closed path C is equal to the integral of the dot product of its curl and the normal to the surface which contains C as its contour. S ds dl C A O. Kilic EE543

  47. Divergence Theorem • The dot product of a vector and the normal to a closed surface S is equal to the volume integral of its divergence over the volume that is contained by S. O. Kilic EE543

  48. References • • O. Kilic EE543