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Chapter 7 Memory PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 7 Memory

Chapter 7 Memory

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Chapter 7 Memory

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  1. Chapter 7 Memory

  2. Chapter Preview The Nature of Memory Memory Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval Forgetting Study Tips Memory and Health and Wellness

  3. The Nature of Memory retention of information or experience over time Three Phases of Memory encoding storage retrieval

  4. Encoding: Sensory Input automatic vs. effortful encoding What is the role of attention? selective attention (purposive focus) divided attention (multitasking) sustained attention (vigilance)

  5. Encoding: Levels of Processing Encoding occurs on a continuum… shallow processing intermediate processing deep processing

  6. Encoding: Levels of Processing

  7. Encoding: Elaboration elaboration can enhance memory number of mental connections vivid examples self-referencing effect

  8. Encoding: Imagery memory wizards dual-code hypothesis(Paivio) verbal code – word or label image code – detailed and distinctive image codes are stored as both superior to verbal codes alone

  9. Memory Storage Atkinson-Shiffrin Theory (1968) sensory memory short-term memory (STM) long-term memory (LTM)

  10. Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

  11. Storage: Sensory Memory rich and detailed information held in original sensory form very brief duration echoic (auditory) memory iconic (visual) memory

  12. Storage: Short-Term Memory attention: sensory memory  STM limited duration (about 30 seconds) limited capacity (7 ± 2)

  13. Storage: Short-Term Memory How can we improve STM? chunking grouping items into a unit rehearsal conscious repetition of information prolongs STM duration indefinitely

  14. Working Memory – An Alternative to STM Is Atkinson-Shiffrin’s theory too simplistic? Active Memory System phonological loop visuospatial working memory central executive

  15. Working Memory Model

  16. Storage: Long-Term Memory relatively permanent with “unlimited” capacity explicit long-term memory (declarative) episodic memory semantic memory implicit long-term memory (nondeclarative) procedural memory classical conditioning priming

  17. Storage: Long-Term Memory

  18. Storage: Explicit LTM declarative memory conscious recollection of specific facts and events that can be verbally communicated Bahrick (1984) – recall college Spanish initial learning is important permastore content effect of distributed practice

  19. Storage: Explicit LTM

  20. Storage: Explicit LTM Subtypes of Explicit Memory episodic autobiographical memories semantic knowledge about the world

  21. Storage: Explicit LTM

  22. Storage: Implicit LTM nondeclarative memory affected by a past experience without consciously recalling it procedural memory classical conditioning priming

  23. Memory: Organization Schemas script (event schema) Connectionist Networks parallel distributed processing (PDP)

  24. Memory: Location storage is diffuse circuits of neurons neurotransmitter involvement long-term potentiation

  25. The Smell of Memory memory and sensation link Proust effect implications/applications why is smell special?

  26. Memory: Brain Structure Explicit Memory • hippocampus, frontal lobes, amygdala Implicit Memory • cerebellum, temporal lobes, hippocampus

  27. Serial Position Effect …tendency to recall items at beginning and end of a list more readily than those in middle

  28. Memory: Brain Structures

  29. Retrieval: Serial Position Effect Primacy Effect more space in working memory for elaborative rehearsal during encoding Recency Effect items still in working memory

  30. Retrieval: Tasks and Cues types of tasks recall recognition encoding specificity information present at encoding effective as retrieval cue context-dependent memory

  31. Retrieval: Special Cases autobiographical memories life time periods - reminiscence bump general events event-specific information emotional memories flashbulb memories traumatic events repressed memories: motivated forgetting - first forgotten and later recovered - Freudian defense mechanism

  32. False Memory Recovery? childhood sexual abuse, other events recovered or discovered memories? abuse is under-acknowledged most victims accurately remember at least a part loss of memory for abuse is possible false reconstruction of memory is possible difficult to separate accurate and inaccurate memories

  33. Eyewitness Testimony Distortion Bias Inaccuracy

  34. Forgetting: Memory Failure Ebbinghaus encoding failure retrieval failure/interference theory proactive interference retroactive interference

  35. Forgetting: Interference

  36. Forgetting: Memory Failure decay theory passage of time  forgetting does not explain all instances of forgetting tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon effortful retrieval of known information can retrieve some information but not all

  37. Forgetting: Memory Failure prospective memory remembering to do something in the future content – remembering what to do timing – remembering when to do it absentmindedness amnesia anterograde amnesia inability to store new information and events retrograde amnesia inability to retrieve past information and events

  38. Study Tips - Encoding give undivided attention process deeply make associations use imagery encode early and often

  39. Study Tips - Retrieval • redo notes • talk to others • test yourself • ask yourself questions • rest and eat well

  40. Memory and Health and Wellness Roles of Autobiographical Memories • learn from our experience • develop sense of identity • bond with others Memory and Aging • indicator of brain functioning • activity inoculates against mental decline • both physical and mental activity are important

  41. Chapter Summary Identify three phases of memory. Explain how memories are encoded. Discuss the three stages of memory storage. Summarize how memories are retrieved. Describe how the failure of encoding and retrieval are involved in forgetting. Evaluate study strategies based on an understanding of memory. Discuss the multiple functions of memory in human life.

  42. Chapter Summary Encoding attention, levels of processing, elaboration, and imagery Storage sensory, short-term, and long-term memory Retrieval serial position, retrieval cues, types of memory

  43. Chapter Summary Forgetting encoding failure, retrieval failure, interference, decay, motivated forgetting, amnesia Study Tips encoding, storage, retrieval Memory and Health and Wellness autobiographical memory, memory and aging