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Chapter 7: Memory

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  1. Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Make a Memory” Bon Jovi “Do you remember” Featuring Jean Paul

  2. Memory: Agenda • 1. Reduction in reading for next test! Midterm #2 • 2. The Memory System • (i) Sensory Memory • From sensory to short-term memory • (ii) Short Term Memory • From short-term to long-term memory • (iii) Long Term Memory • Forgetting • 3. Eye-Witness Testimonies • 4. Application: Improving your memory • 5. Movie: “Snake Phobia” 12 min.

  3. 1. Readings for Midterm #2 • Chapter 5 “Variations in Consciousness” • Chapter 6 “Learning” • Chapter 7 “Memory” • Chapter 8 “Language and Thought” • Delete pages 329-344 • Chapter 9 • Delete pages 369-375 • Evaluation: • Midterm #2 will be worth 20% of your final grade • Same format as Midterm #1 • Start studying now!

  4. 2. The Memory System Fig. 7.6 p. 290

  5. 2. Three Key processes in Memory

  6. 2. (i) Sensory Memory • Stores a perfect picture of the world, but for a fraction of a second • See Sperling’s studies p. 274 • Iconic (visual) and echoic (auditory) sensory memories

  7. 2. (i) Sperling’s Studies p. 290

  8. From Sensory to Short-Term Memory • How does information get encoded and transferred onto the memory system? • a) Automatic processing • No effort required • See implicit memories p. 312 • b) Effortful processing • Pay conscious effort and attention to hold info. In short-term memory • See explicit memories p. 312

  9. 2. (ii) Short-Term Memory • Semi-permanent storage • Magic number: 7 (+ - 2) • Information is lost after 20-30 seconds unless it is rehearsed • Maintenance rehearsal keeps the information there… • Elaborative rehearsal brings the information to long term memory • Type of encoding: p.287

  10. Type of Encoding • 2. (ii) Type of encoding, p. 287

  11. 2. (ii) From Short-Term to Long-Term Memory • What helps us remember?? • a) Type of encoding • b) Self-referent encoding (self-schema) • c) Imagery • d) Mnemonics: • method of loci • Acronyms: e.g. Roy G. Biv

  12. To long term memory… (cont’d) • e) Chunking: e.g. • 1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2 • (1492) (1776) (1812) • f) Organize information hierarchically • g) Spacing effects: • distributed practice leads to better long-term retention • h) Time: over learn! • i) Mood-dependent effects

  13. 2. (iii) Long Term Memory • Where information is stored in relatively permanent form • Capacity is seemingly infinite! • 2 memory systems: p. 313 • Declarative: • Semantic (explicit memories/encyclopedia) • Episodic (implicit memories/autobiography) • Non-declarative, procedural • “how to”; implicit memories based on practice or habit

  14. p. 313

  15. 2. (iii) Forgetting • Major reasons: • a) failure to encode • b) stored memories decay • c) retrieval failure • d) interference: • Proactive and retroactive • e) motivated forgetting: • Freud’s concept of repression • Repressed memory controversy • p. 305-308

  16. 2. (iii) Forgetting: The Story of HM • The most famous and studied amnesiac • p. 310

  17. 2. (iii) Forgetting: Interference • p. 304

  18. 3. Eyewitness Testimony • A case of constructive memory • Discussed by professor in class • Another illustration with Loftus • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_RLvSGYxDIs&feature=fvw Conclusion: • “Memories” for non-existent objects can be implanted • Memory is surprisingly unreliable

  19. 4. Improving your Memory • a) Pay Attention! • And over learn • b) Distributed practice • Take your time, and take time • c) Engage in deep processing • Make information personally meaningful • Provide examples for yourself • Link to previously acquired knowledge • d) Organize information hierarchically • e) Learn through several modalities • E.g. use visual imagery • (2 codes is better than 1) • f) Use mnemonics (where useful) • g) Minimize interference

  20. 4. Movie: Snake Phobia • Can people with a specific phobia learn to quickly overcome their fears? You will see an actual demonstration of exposure therapy that helps a snake phobic overcome her severe phobic reaction in just three hours. (12 min.)