Ottoman Empire – Political/Military • Expansion and Frontiers • Ultimately benefited from: • shrewdness of its founder Osman, • control of Gallipoli/Dardenelles strait and • gunpowder.
Ottoman name comes from original ruler "Osman". • 1300s - Starts in Anatolia (Map p. 532) • 1389 - Battle of Kosovo - takes over modern day Serbia - West • 1453 - The Sultan Mehmed II seiges/takes over Constantinople (now Istanbul) using canon fire, dragging warships over land to skip Bosporus strait/sea defenses, and attack by infantry • Takes over Anatolia, focuses west on Greece, • 1514 - holds off attack of Safavid Shaw in Iran - Battle of Childiran
Osman I Thazi (1258-1326)
1. EAST/WEST PUSH: Osman established the Ottoman Empire in northwestern Anatolia in 1300. • He and his successors consolidated control over Anatolia, fought Christian enemies in Greece and in the Balkans, captured Serbia and the Byzantine capital of Constantinople, and established a general border with Iran.
After Constantinople becomes Istanbul (“To the City") , it is resurrected to become a large cosmopolitan city - 700,000 by 1600, larger than any other European city, up from approximately 30,000 at end of Constantinople's time prior to fall.
2. SOUTH: Egypt and Syria were added to the empire in 1516–1517, and the major port cities of Algeria and Tunis voluntarily joined the Ottoman Empire in the early sixteenth century. Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566) conquered Belgrade (1521) and Rhodes (1522) and laid siege to Vienna (1529), but withdrew with the onset of winter.
Vienna represented as far as soldiers could march during summer from Istanbul - outer limits of reach of military campaigns.
3. WEST: The Ottoman Empire fought with Venice for two centuries as it attempted to exert its control over the Mediterranean. The Ottomans forced the Venetians to pay tribute but continued to allow them to trade.
4. SOUTH: Muslim merchants in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean requested Ottoman naval support against the Portuguese. The Ottomans responded vigorously to Portuguese threats against nearby ports such as Aden, but they saw no reason to commit much effort to the defense of non-Ottoman Muslim merchants in the Indian Ocean.
Economic: • Ottoman Empire sat at boarder of Europe and Asia • Effectively blocked land trade routes with far east/south east asia. • However, as Ottoman Empire rises/peaks, so too does Ship technology and ability of European powers (who cannot rally together to counter Ottoman control of inland routes) such as Portuguese to go around Africa (and Ottoman empire holdings) to engage in trade.
Social: Central Institutions: • 1. The original Ottoman military forces of mounted warriors armed with bows were supplemented in the late fourteenth century when the Ottomans formed captured Balkan Christian men into a force called the new troops (Janissaries), who fought on foot and were armed with guns. • In the early fifteenth century, the Ottomans began to recruit men for the Janissaries and for positions in the bureaucracy through the system called devshirme—a levy on male Christian children.
2. The Ottoman Empire was a cosmopolitan society in which the Osmanli-speaking, tax-exempt military class (askeri) served the sultan as soldiers and bureaucrats. The common people—Christians, Jews, and Muslims—were referred to as the raya (flock of sheep). • On the other hand, there was a level of tolerance of non-islamic peoples in the Ottoman empire (and in Istanbul particularly) that made it more cosmopolitan and more inclusive than for example Spain during the time of the Inquisition.
3. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, Ottoman land forces were powerful enough to defeat the Safavids, but the Ottomans were defeated at sea by combined Christian forces at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. The Turkish cavalry were paid in land grants, while the Janissaries were paid from the central treasury.
4. In the view of the Ottomans, the sultan supplied justice and defense for the common people (the reaya), while the reaya supported the sultan and his military through their taxes. In practice, the common people had little direct contact with the Ottoman government, being ruled by local notables and by their religious leaders (Muslim, Christian, or Jewish).
Crisis of the Military State, 1585–1650 1. The increasing importance and expense of firearms meant that the size and cost of the Janissaries increased over time, while the importance of the landholding Turkish cavalry (who disdained firearms) decreased. • At the same time, New World silver brought inflation and undermined the purchasing power of the fixed tax income of the cavalry and the fixed stipends of students and professors at the madrasas.
2. Financial deterioration and the use of short-term mercenary soldiers brought a wave of rebellions and banditry to Anatolia. The Janissaries began to marry, went into business, and enrolled their sons in the Janissary corps, which grew in number but declined in military readiness.
D. Economic Change and Growing Weakness, 1650–1750 1. The period of crisis led to significant changes in Ottoman institutions. The sultan now lived a secluded life in his palace, the affairs of government were in the hands of chief administrators, the devshirme had been discontinued, and the Janissaries had become a politically powerful hereditary elite who spent more time on crafts and trade than on military training.
2. In the rural areas, the system of land grants in return for military service had been replaced by a system of tax farming. Rural administration came to depend on powerful provincial governors and wealthy tax farmers.
3. In the context of disorder and decline, formerly peripheral places like Izmir flourished as Ottoman control over trade declined and European merchants came to purchase Iranian silk and local agricultural products. This growing trade brought the agricultural economies of western Anatolia, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean coast into the European commercial network.
4. By the middle of the eighteenth century, it was clear that the Ottoman Empire was in economic and military decline. Europeans dominated Ottoman import and export trade by sea, but they did not control strategic ports or establish colonial settlements on Ottoman territory.
5. During the Tulip Period (1718–1730), the Ottoman ruling class enjoyed European luxury goods and replicated the Dutch tulip mania of the sixteenth century. In 1730, the Patrona Halil rebellion indicated the weakness of the central state; provincial elites took advantage of this weakness to increase their power and their wealth.
The Safavid Empire 1502-1722 The Rise of the Safavids • Similarities between Safavids and Ottoman Empire: • initially used land grants to support all important cavalry • population spoke several languages • Focused on land rather than sea power • urban notables, nomadic chieftains and religious scholars served as intermediaries between people and government.
Differences • Farther East - Persian Gulf • Despite long coastline, never had a Navy • Portuguese held Persian Gulf in 1517 anbd held it until 1622 • Entirely Land-Oriented; relied on England and Dutch for assistance at sea.
Society and Religion • Ismail • 1502 - age 16 - declares himself shaw of Iran • Declares that realm will be Shi'ite, not Sunni, and revere son-in-law of Muhammad, Ali • Difference between Shi'ite and Sunni? • Shi'ite Doctrine/Shi'ism • All temporal rulers, regardless of title, are temporary stand-ins for for the "hidden imam", the twelfth descendant of Ali, who was the prophet Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law. • Shi'ites believe that leadership of the Muslim community rests solely with the divinely appointed Imams from Ali's family • that the Twelfth descendant (the Hidden Imam) disappeared as a child in the ninth century, and that the shi'ite community will lack a proper religious authority until he returns. • Sunni - • Neighboring countries were mostly Sunni
A Tale of Two Cities: Isfahan and Istanbul • Isfahan becomes capital of Iran in 1598 by decree of Shah Abbas I. • Physical/Geographic differences • Istanbul on coast; Isfahan inland • Istanbul skyline dominated by gray domes from churches turned mosques and tall minarets; Isfahan dominated by brick domes, smaller minarets. • High walls surround sultan's palace in Istanbul; Isfahan focused on giant royal plaza - airy palace overlooking the plaza.
Women's treatment/place in society • Seldom appeared in public • Separate sections of the residence, apart from where men met visitors. • Were able to buy (through male agents) real estate • Some women helped establish religious endowments • Women held on to property after marriage gave them stake in economy and relative Independence. • Veiled outside of home. • Men rather than women dominated /monopolized public life.
Isfahan - • Armenian Flavor/club in Isfahan, but not truly cosmpolitan city - few visitors • Located near center of domain; versus Istanbul located on coast at crossroads of European trade • Istanbul had manytraders living or spending time in city; although most money came from taxes on land rather than trade.
Facts about the Ardebil CarpetOriginally woven as a pair in either 1540 or 1586 making it one of the oldest carpets still in existence. • The carpets were commissioned by Shah Tahmasp (1514-1576) who ruled Iran from the age of 10. • They would have taken about 4 years to complete. • They covered the floor of the Sheikh Safi Shrine for 3 centuries before being bought by a British traveller in 1890. • They each measure 10.5m by 5m (34 ½’ by 17 ½’) and contain approximately 30 million knots. • The lamps at either end of the design are different sizes to create an illusion of perspective – this is because they were intended to be viewed primarily from one side. • The room in which it is displayed is fully lit for only 10 minutes every half hour. • Both of the original carpets are signed and dated with an ode by the 14th century poet Hafez:- • I have no refuge in this world other than thy thresholdMy head has no resting place other than this doorway
The Mughal Empire 1526-1761 • Political Foundation
The Maritime Worlds of Islam, 1500-1750 • Muslims in Southeast Asia