World War I (The Great War) Art Lewandowski Fostoria High School
Four Long Term Causes • Militarism • Alliances • Imperialism • Nationalism
Imperialism • Dominating countries politically and economically • Closely linked to industry • Need for raw materials and markets
Imperialism Cont. • Causes tension • Examples • Russo-Japanese War over Korea • France and Great Britain nearly went to war in Africa
Nationalism • Belief that national interests and national unity should be placed ahead of global cooperation • Self-interest to guide foreign affairs
Nationalism Cont. • Examples: • Germanic peoples (Germany/Austria) share common heritage and goals • Russia was regarded as the protector of Slavic peoples
Militarism • Long term military buildup • European countries wanted to be stronger than each other • Germany had become the strongest in mainland Europe
Militarism Cont. • Results • France, Italy, Japan, and the United States started to develop more advanced weapons
Alliances • Support other countries if they are attacked
Alliances Cont. • Examples: • Triple Alliance: Central Powers • Turkey, Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy • Triple Entente: Allies • France, Russia, Great Britain
The Spark That Started The War • June 28, 1914 Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo, Serbia • Gavrilo Princip was the assassin and was a member of the Black Hand • How did nationalism, imperialism and militarism both work to cause this?
War is Declared • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia July 28, 1914 • Russia had to support Serbia • Germany had to support Aus-Hun.
Ger. declared war on Russia (France’s Ally) G.B. came to help Fr. after neutral Belgium was invaded Alliances Tear Europe Apart
Alliances Tear Europe Apart Cont. • By the end of the summer of 1914 the whole continent of Europe was engulfed in war.
Think-Pair-ShareWhat would you do? • Your nation is one of the oldest, wealthiest and most populous in the world. Your Science and tech. industries are the best in the world. But you are surrounded by weaker countries that build up their navies to threaten your colonies and steal your resources. They also want to take some of your territory. You fear they are growing stronger at your expense and eventually they might try to take over your homeland. You might lose your home and cultural heritage forever. What will you do? Why?
A New Type of War –total war • By 1914 most of Europe is at war • New technology combined with old tactics (fighting in lines) produces horrible casualty rates • Poison gas • Machine guns • Tanks • Trench warfare: soldiers dig in and stay to maintain lines, 100,000’s die to win a few hundred yards • Wireless radio (Russian, German, Brit usage)
A New Type of War –total war • Europe, Asia, and Africa engaged in the largest, bloodiest conflict the world has ever seen • Gallipoli 1915: approx. 160k dead • Verdun 1916: approx. 300k dead • The Somme 1916: Brits lose 60k in 8hrs! • See Maps: • http://www.the-map-as-history.com/demos/tome05/index.php • Note where Allies and Central powers would conflict
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zs_771bxNrs – life of soldiers during war
Stalemate handout Divide students into groups representing WWI allied and central power military strategists who have recognized the war's stalemate. Instruct each group to come up with a plan -- based on their understanding of the deadlock's contributors -- that will end the deadlock. Then, have the groups discuss the various plans and come to consensus on the best strategies for ending the stalemate, which indicates that the powers will have to make concessions.
What Does The U.S. Do? • Remain Neutral? • U.S. has mixed feelings- a nation of immigrants, support Germany? • This was Europe’s war, stay out? • Germany the “bully of Europe”
Pushing the U.S. to War • British Blockade of Germ -no supplies in or out of Germany -Americans begin to take a side • German Submarine Warfare -starting to affect American shipping • Lusitania sunk (May 1915) by u-boats • Germans promise to stop sub warfare…….. • British Propaganda
Executed for helping British Troops escape Belgium, 1915, publicized world-wide
Pushing the U.S. to War • The Zimmerman Note (Jan 1917): -Germany sends message to Mexico: “ We are resuming sub warfare, Help us beat the U.S. and we’ll give you back the American west.” -America reacts…. • Congress Declares War on Germany (April 1917)…why Germany and not UK? • The Russian Revolution 1917: severely weakens Russia • Russia has to make peace treaty with Central powers • w/draws from combat& the Allies begin to struggle
America Goes to war - “To make the World Safe For Democracy” • U.S. troops don’t land until 1918 • U.S. was unprepared…. • Need troops, supplies and money
Wilson Mobilizes for War • War Industries Board • Encouraged companies to use mass production • Set production quotas and raw materials • Caused retail prices to soar ***Production soars as we are supplying Europe and ourselves • Selective Service Act (1917)-the draft, mandatory service • we need troops! • Non-combatant service
*Fuel Administration • Rationed Gasoline and Heating Oil- could only use so much • Gasless Sundays • Lightless Nights • Daylight Savings Time
*Food Administration • One day meatless • Another day sweetless • Two days wheatless • One more day porkless
Winning Public Support • Two Parts: • Raising $ • Gov’t sells war bonds and savings stamps • Convincing people to support the war • Committee on Public Information • Propaganda- biased communication designed to influence people’s thoughts and actions • Leads to some racism and infringing on rights
“What England Wants!”
National Security vs. Civil Liberties Is it Patriotic to argue against your country going to war?
Attacks on Civil Liberties Increase #12 • Main targets were Americans who had immigrated from Germany or Austria-Hungary • Stopped playing German music • Stopped teaching German language in school • Hamburgers became Salisbury Steak • Sauerkraut was now called “Liberty Cabbage” • Changed all German street names • Racism in media and hate crimes on the street
Attacks on Civil liberties limit: • 1st Amend: Freedoms of speech, press and assembly • 4th Amend: Due process of law (protects against illegal searches and seizures)
Espionage and Sedition Acts • Passed to be sure that war effort was not undermined • Espionage Act 1917: • Made it a crime to help enemies • Allowed censorship of mail and prosecution of socialists, radicals and pacifists • Sedition Act 1918: • Made it a crime to say anything disloyal, disapproving, or abusive about the government or war effort. • A person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to 20 years in jail for “interfering” with the war effort
Civil Rights Violence for some was/is against religion Sel. Service Act (draft) forced many into military Gov’t assigned them noncombatant roles in the military
Why we limit Civil Liberties.. • Use an example to answer in OGT notebook: When fighting a war, what is more important? • National Security? Why? • Civil Rights? Why?
The War Encourages Social Change • Women in the War • Took over jobs that had been held by men • Boosted the support for Women’s Suffrage (the right to vote) • 19th Amendment 1920
War Encourages Social Change • African Americans and the War • Hoped to end racial tensions • Males were allowed to join the army but were segregated and often served with the French or British • Great Migration- mass movement from the South to the Northern cities for industry jobs
Social Changes in WWI – Epidemic • Worldwide outbreak of “Bird Flue” • Why? • Immigration • Travel, trade and combat
Social Changes in WWI- “The Red Scare” • Revolution -Communists “Reds” pull Russia out of WWI • More Americans begin to fear/distrust immigrants especially: • Russians (we fear political ideas) • Italians (anarchists???)
Fourteen Points • President Wilson makes speech and lists his fourteen point plan • All nations in Europe should have self-determination • Each nationality should have its own nation, even if other countries lose territory • Wanted freedom of seas, reduced military, and a League of Nations