Ch. 16 Evolution of Populations. Page 393. A. Variation and Gene Pools. 1. A Gene Pool is made up of all the genes (including alleles) that are in a population. A. Variation and Gene Pools. 2. The Relative Frequency of an allele is how many times it occurs in a gene pool .
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1. Fossil records show that the size of the black bears in Europe decreased during interglacial periods of the ice ages, but increased during each glacial period.
2. Babies of low weight lose heat more quickly and get ill from infectious disease more easily, whereas babies of large body weight are more difficult to deliver through the pelvis and do not survive. Infants of a more medium weight survive much more often. For the larger or smaller babies, the baby mortality rate is much higher.
3. Suppose there is a population of rabbits. The color of the rabbits is controlled by two incompletely dominant traits: black fur, represented by “B”, and white fur, represented by “b”.
4. Another example is the beak size in a population of finches. Throughout the wet years, small seeds were more common and there was such a large supply of the small seeds that the finches rarely ate large seeds. During the dry years, none of the seeds were in great abundance, but the birds usually ate more large seeds. The change in diet of the finches affected the depth of the birds’ beaks in the future generations. Their beaks range from large and tough to small and smooth.