The Instructional Design Process November 9, 2000
Learning & Instruction • Define learning • Development of new KSA • Permanent change in behavior • Define instruction • Arrangement of the environment (media-presented information) to facilitate learning
Instructional Need • How do you know if you have one? • Performance need is gap between existing and desired behavior • Instructional need is a performance need that can be solved by instruction (rather than changes in resources, personnel, etc.)
Instructional design is... • The systematic process of translating principles of learning and instruction into specifications for instructional materials and activities -Smith & Ragan • Producing a solution to an instructional problem -Lockee
What does a designer do? The primary role of the designer is to: • Decide what is important for students to learn. • Effectively arrange the learning environment (media) to maximize the probability of individual student learning (permanent changes in behavior).
Instructional Design is based on.. • General Systems Theory • A set of interrelated and acting parts that work together toward a common goal • Educational Psychology Theory • From Behaviorism to Constructivism • Communication Theory • Sender, receiver, feedback • Instructional Theory
What are the advantages of ID? • Focus on what learner will be able to do as a result of the instruction • Linkage between components • Empirical and replicable process • Produces consistent instruction • Facilitates effective assessment methods • Applicable across settings
ID Process: Step by Step • Needs analysis • Determine instructional goal • Analyze the instructional goal • Necessary entry behaviors • Step-by-step goal performance • Analyze learners and contexts • Prior knowledge • Learning environment • Application of skills and knowledge
Components of Systems Approach • Write performance objectives • Very specific and measureable • Some include conditions • Develop assessment instruments • Emphasis on accurately measuring behaviors • Now rather than later...
Components of Systems Approach • Develop instructional strategies • Presentation of information • Practice and feedback • Testing • Follow-up activities • Develop instruction • Creation of materials • Deliverables which exemplify previous steps
Components of Systems Approach • Conduct formative evaluation of instruction • One-to-one prototype testing • Small group evaluation • Field testing • Revise instruction • Data from formative evaluation used to assess whole process • Conduct summative evaluation
Or simply put... • Design • Develop • Evaluate • Sometimes called “Instructional Development”
Basic ID Model Dick & Carey, 1966
ID Resources Dick, W. & Carey, L. (1996). The systematic design of instruction (4th ed.). New York: HarperCollins College Publishers. Smith, P. & Ragan, T. (1999). Instructional design (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. Gagne, R., Briggs, L., & Wager, W. (1992). Principles of instructional design (4th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Shambaugh, R., & Magliaro, S. (1997). Mastering the possibilities: A process approach to instructional design. Allyn & Bacon: Boston.