Instructional Design Process. Other Models. Morrison Ross and Kemp Model. Instructional Problem. The instructional design process begins with the identification of an instructional problem or need. A need is defined as a gap between what is expected and the existing conditions.
The instructional design process begins with the identification of an instructional problem or need.
A need is defined as a gap between what is expected and the existing conditions.
A formal needs assessment is conducted to verify the problem and to make sure that it is instructional in nature
Needs assessment is a tool for identifying a problem and then selecting an appropriate intervention.
The process serves four functions:
1. It identifies the needs relevant to a particular job or task i.e. what problems are affecting performance.
2. It identifies critical needs
3. It sets priorities for selecting an
4. It provides baseline data to assess the
effectiveness of the instruction.
The summary of your findings and your recommendations will form your instructional problem.
A normative need is a need that is based on the standards or norms that exist. The most common standard used is a national standard. A normative need exists when the target population's performance is less than the established norm.
A comparative need is identified by comparing the target group to a peer that is another company or school as opposed to the norm.
Anticipated needs are a means of identifying changes that will occur in the future. Identifying such needs should be part of any planned change so that training can be designed prior to implementation of the change.
Mager (1984) identifies critical incident needs as failures that are rare but have significant consequences.
e.g. Earthquake preparedness