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Instructional Design Process. Other Models. Morrison Ross and Kemp Model. Instructional Problem. The instructional design process begins with the identification of an instructional problem or need. A need is defined as a gap between what is expected and the existing conditions.

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instructional problem
Instructional Problem

The instructional design process begins with the identification of an instructional problem or need.

A need is defined as a gap between what is expected and the existing conditions.

identifying instructional problems
Identifying Instructional Problems
  • Needs Assessment
  • Goals Analysis
  • Performance Assessment
goals analysis
Goals Analysis
  • Aim
  • Goals
  • Refinement
  • Rank
  • Refinement
  • Final rank
performance assessment
Performance Assessment
  • Knowledge or skills
  • Motivation or incentive
  • Environmental
  • Management
  • Interpersonal
needs assessment
Needs Assessment

A formal needs assessment is conducted to verify the problem and to make sure that it is instructional in nature

needs assessment10
Needs Assessment

Needs assessment is a tool for identifying a problem and then selecting an appropriate intervention.

The process serves four functions:

1. It identifies the needs relevant to a particular job or task i.e. what problems are affecting performance.

needs assessment11
Needs Assessment

2. It identifies critical needs

3. It sets priorities for selecting an


4. It provides baseline data to assess the

effectiveness of the instruction.

needs assessment12
Needs Assessment
  • Needs assessment comprise four (4) phases:
  • The Planning phase
  • Data Collection Phase
  • Data Analysis Phase
  • Final Report Phase
planning phase
Planning Phase
  • From whom will your data be collected – Your Audience
  • What type of data will be collected – What need exist
  • How will the data be collected – interviews, questionnaires etc
  • How will the data be analysed
collecting phase
Collecting Phase
  • Ensure a representative sample is collected
  • Schedule your interview or data collection exercise
analyzing phase
Analyzing Phase
  • Charts
  • Diagrams
  • Pie charts
  • Other statistical tools
final report
Final Report
  • Summarize the purpose of the study
  • Summarize the process (How the study was done)
  • Summarize the results with one or more tables and a brief narrative
  • Make necessary recommendations based on the data
needs assessment17
Needs Assessment

The summary of your findings and your recommendations will form your instructional problem.

types of needs
Types of NEEDS
  • Normative
  • Comparative
  • Felt
  • Expressed
  • Critical incident
  • Anticipated
normative need
Normative Need

A normative need is a need that is based on the standards or norms that exist. The most common standard used is a national standard. A normative need exists when the target population's performance is less than the established norm.

comparative need
Comparative Need

A comparative need is identified by comparing the target group to a peer that is another company or school as opposed to the norm.

felt need
Felt Need
  • A felt need is a desire or want that an individual has, to improve either his or her performance or that of the target audience. Felt needs express a gap between current performance or skill level and desired performance or skill level.
expressed need
Expressed Need
  • Bradshaw (1972) defines an expressed need as a felt need turned into action.
    • EXAMPLE: When an instructional designer goes to his boss or writes a letter or choose any other form of communication to make a request for training he or she is expressing a need and this becomes an expressed need
anticipated need
Anticipated Need

Anticipated needs are a means of identifying changes that will occur in the future. Identifying such needs should be part of any planned change so that training can be designed prior to implementation of the change.

critical incident needs
Critical Incident Needs

Mager (1984) identifies critical incident needs as failures that are rare but have significant consequences.

e.g. Earthquake preparedness