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TCAP-Review. By: Chandler H olmes. Life Science. Producers- Produces the food, (ex.) Plants- cactus, flowers , bushes , trees. Consumers- Eats the food or producer. (ex) Animals, insects, people Scavengers- Eat the dead animals (ex) vultures.

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Tcap review


By: Chandler Holmes

Life science
Life Science

Producers- Produces the food, (ex.) Plants- cactus, flowers , bushes , trees.

Consumers- Eats the food or producer. (ex) Animals, insects, people

Scavengers- Eat the dead animals (ex) vultures.

Decomposers- break down dead animals. (ex) Mushrooms, bacteria, fungi.


  • Producers (plants)

  • Primary consumers

    (eat producers)

  • Secondary consumers

    (eat primary consumers)

  • Tertiary consumers

    (eat secondary-



  • Abiotic- non living- (ex) rocks, water, atmosphere.

  • Biotic- living- (ex) cactus, snakes, insects.

  • 8 main biomes- tropical rain forest, tropical desert, tropical savanna, temperate forests, temperate grasslands, temperate deserts, tundra, taiga.

Environmental conditions
Environmental conditions

  • Desert- hot, dry, snakes, lizards

  • Rainforest- hot, wet, tucans, lizards,

  • Savanna(grassland)- hot, dry, grassy, lions

  • Forest- trees, warm or hot, deer

  • Tundra- cold, underground frozen soil, polor bears

Space science
Space science

  • The Inner planets- Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars

  • The outer planets- Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

  • The inner planets are also known as the terrestrial planets, they are small, dense, and made of rock.

  • The outer planets are also called the gas giants.

  • they are extremely large, cold, and made of gas.

Dwarf planets
Dwarf planets

  • Plutowas once considered the farthest planet. However, part of its orbit brings it closer to the Sun than Neptune, and it is about as small as the largest asteroid in the Solar System, Ceres. The status of Pluto was changed in 2006 to "dwarf planet", so it is no longer considered one of the major planets. Pluto is very cold and dim. It has a moon called Charon, which is almost as big as Pluto itself.Ceres is another celestial body that is considered a dwarf planet. Before the "dwarf planet" category was established, it was classified as the largest known asteroid in the Solar System.


  • Stars do not exist as separate entities in space, but instead belong to large groups of other stars that are held together by the force of gravity. These large groups of stars are called galaxies. Scientists believe that there are billions of galaxies in the Universe, and that most galaxies contain billions of stars. Some galaxies may even contain trillions of stars.

4 galaxies
4 galaxies

  • 1. Spiral Galaxy - these galaxies are relatively flat and have a bulge in the middle. These galaxies have arms that spiral out from the center. Our Milky Way galaxy is a spiral galaxy, and the Sun, our closest star, is one of the stars in it. Below is a picture of the spiral galaxy M81.

4 galaxies1
4 galaxies

  • 2. Barred Spiral Galaxy - these galaxies are shaped like spiral galaxies, except for the fact that the arms begin spiraling out from a straight line of stars instead of from the center. Below is a picture of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672.

4 galaxies2
4 galaxies

  • Elliptical Galaxy - these galaxies look like a round or flattened ball and contain little gas and dust between the stars. These are often described as taking on the shape of a football. Below is a picture of the elliptical galaxy NGC 1132.

4 galaxies3
4 galaxies

  • Irregular Galaxy - these galaxies have no discernible shape or structure. Below is a picture of the irregular galaxy I Zwicky 18.


  • A nebula (plural = nebulae) is a cloud of dust and gas that exists in space, usually between stars. Nebulae can generally be classified into two categories based on their size and shape—planetary nebulae and diffuse nebulae.A planetary nebula is a relatively small, ball-shaped nebula that surrounds a star. The nebula forms from material ejected from the star's outer layers as the star begins to collapse. The Hubble Space Telescope image below shows a planetary nebula.


  • A diffuse nebula is a larger nebula with an irregular shape. Diffuse nebulae located near stars reflect starlight or give off their own bright light. The image below shows a diffuse nebula.


  • "Spiral Nebulae"The term "spiral nebulae" was used by astronomers before the 20th century. This term referred to a class of spiral-shaped objects believed at that time to be nebulae in our own Milky Way Galaxy. Modern astronomers now know that these objects are actually spiral galaxies located far beyond the Milky Way

Star clusters
Star clusters

  • Star ClustersA star cluster is a group of stars bound to each other by gravity. Star clusters can be classified into two general categories—galactic clusters and globular clusters. A galactic cluster is an open cluster of stars that are loosely bound to each other by gravity. A globular cluster is a spherical cluster of stars that are tightly bound to each other by gravity. The images below show an example of each cluster type.

Solar system
Solar system

  • The Earth, the Sun, and the seven other planets that are in orbit around the Sun are part of our solar system. Our solar system also contains all of the meteoroids, asteroids, and comets that are in orbit around the Sun and all of the moons that orbit around the eight planets. The eight planets in our solar system are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.Our solar system is located in the Milky Way Galaxy. The Milky Way Galaxy is a spiral galaxy that contains hundreds of billions of stars. In fact, in areas on Earth without excessive light pollution, the stars of the Milky Way create a band of light that can be seen in the night sky. The entire Milky Way Galaxy is about 100,000 light years across.

Solar system1
Solar system

  • The Sun is a medium-sized star within the Milky Way Galaxy. The Sun and our solar system are about halfway out from the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. The entire Milky Way Galaxy is about 100,000 light years across.


  • Comets

  • Comets have the most elliptical orbits of all the objects in the solar system. They move into the inner solar system for only a short amount of time. Once they have passed around the Sun, they move back out into the outer reaches of the solar system again, often well past Pluto, and are not seen again for many years.Comets are smaller than planets, moons or asteriods. They are mostly made up of dust particles, frozen water and frozen gases. They are usually very hard to see, but as they approach the Sun these particles heat up and become much easier to see. It is the heating of these particles that causes a comet to have its distinct tail


  • Asteroids

  • The majority of the asteroids in our solar system can be found in the space between Mars and Jupiter. This area is called the asteroid belt. Asteroids vary greatly in size and shape and are mostly made up of stone, iron and nickel.


  • Meteorites

  • Meteorites are only found on the surface of planets. The reason for this is that until they survive the trip through the atmosphere of a planet and actually land on the planet's surface, they are classified as meteoroids. Most meteorites are created as the result of collisions of asteroids, comets, moons, and even planets within our solar system.Classifying meteorites has proven to be a difficult thing because they are usually formed when smaller chunks of material are knocked off of larger objects. Meteorites have come from asteroids, comets, moons, and even planets. The 3 main classifications of meteorites are stony, stony iron, and iron.

Lunar cycles
Lunar cycles

  • The lunar cycle is the appearance of phases of the Moon as viewed from Earth, as the Moon orbits the Earth about once every 27 days. Because the Earth is moving around the Sun, the Moon requires about 29.5 days to complete the synodic movement and all phases. This period is also known as a lunar month.

Phases of the moon
Phases of the moon

There are 8 phases of the moon. They are- new moon-waxing cresent-1st quarter-waxing gibbous-full moon-waning gibbous-3rd quarter-waning crescent- and keeps going-----

Day month year
Day, month, year

  • Day- the day is based on the rotation of the earth. The earth makes one complete rotation every day. It is the rotation of the earth that causes changes from night to day.

  • Month- the month is based on the moon around the earth. The separation of the days in our year into months is based on the amount of time it takes the moon to revolve around earth. It actually takes about 27.3 days for the moon to make one revolution around the earth.

  • Year- the year is based on the revolution of the earth around the sun. it takes 365 days for the earth to revolve once around the sun.

Spring and neap tides
Spring and neap tides

  • The rising and falling of ocean due to gravitational pull of the sun and moon is called a tide.

  • Spring tides are- A tide in which the difference between high and low tide is the greatest. Spring tides occur when the Moon is either new or full, and the Sun, the Moon, and the Earth are aligned. When this is the case, their collective gravitational pull on the Earth's water is strengthened.

  • Neap tides are- A tide in which the difference between high and low tide is the least. Neap tides occur twice a month when the Sun and Moon are at right angles to the Earth. When this is the case, their total gravitational pull on the Earth's water is weakened because it comes from two different directions.

Solar and lunar eclipses
Solar and lunar eclipses

A lunar eclipse occurs at night and a solar eclipse occurs during the day. There are only certain times when either of them can occur. A lunar eclipse can only occur when the moon is directly opposite the Sun in the sky — a full moon. Even though there is a full moon each month, obviously a lunar eclipse does not occur on a monthly basis because the Sun isn't exactly in line with the Earth and the moon. The moon's orbit is actually tilted 5 degrees more than that of the Earth; otherwise, we would see a lunar eclipse each month. A solar eclipse has always had a more profound effect on humans than a lunar eclipse. This is probably because of the importance of the Sun to all life on Earth. In ancient China, a solar eclipse was thought to be the dragon coming to eat the Sun. The effect that an eclipse has on all life on Earth is of particular interest to scientists. They eagerly await a solar eclipse because it helps them to gather more knowledge about the Sun and its position with respect to Earth.

Solar and lunar eclipses1


Solar and lunar eclipses

  • Solar-----

  • Lunar----


  • Google

  • Study island

  • Moon

  • Nasa