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E-WASTE: GENERATION, DANGER AND MANAGEMENT. ENGR. DR. Y. A. ADEDIRAN, FNSE Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin E-mail: yinusaade@yahoo.com. THINGS TO CONSIDER. What is E-Waste? Categories and Components of E-Waste Dangers of E-Waste Stakeholders in E-Waste

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e waste generation danger and management

E-WASTE: GENERATION, DANGER AND MANAGEMENT

ENGR. DR. Y. A. ADEDIRAN, FNSE

Department of Electrical Engineering,

University of Ilorin, Ilorin

E-mail: yinusaade@yahoo.com

things to consider
THINGS TO CONSIDER
  • What is E-Waste?
  • Categories and Components of E-Waste
  • Dangers of E-Waste
  • Stakeholders in E-Waste
  • What can be done with E-Waste?
  • E-Waste management initiatives (International)
  • E-Waste Management in Nigeria
  • Recommendations

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • Electronic Waste (E-Waste, Waste EEE) one of the fastest growing waste streams all over the world
  • Contains more than 1000 different substances
  • Averages 1-3% of total solid waste in developed countries
  • Increases by 16-28% every 5 years
  • Need for effective management
  • Up to 75% of electronics shipped to computer village in Lagos are irreparable junk
  • Africa is the latest destination for obsolete EEE because of
    • Hunger for information and bridging digital divide
    • Limited capacity to manufacture

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

what is e waste
WHAT IS E-WASTE?
  • No standard definition, each country with its own definition, interpretation and usage
  • No definition at all in any African country

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

what is e waste eu definition
WHAT IS E-WASTE? EU definition
  • Waste: Any substance or object which the holder disposes of or is required to dispose of pursuant to the provisions of national law in force
  • EEE: equipment dependent on electrical currents or electromagnetic (EM) fields in order to work properly, and
    • equipment for generation, transfer and measurements of such currents and fields…desired for use with a voltage <100 Vac and 1500 Vdc

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

categories of e waste by eu
CATEGORIES OF E-WASTE (by EU)
  • Household appliances (large and small)
  • IT and Telecoms equipment
  • Consumer equipment
  • Lighting equipment
  • Electrical and electronic tools
  • Toys, leisure and sports equipment
  • Medical devices
  • Monitoring and control instruments
  • Automatic dispensers

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

a short list
A SHORT LIST …

CRT (of computers and television sets), printers, fax machines, photocopiers, computer peripherals, VCRs, radio receivers, CD players, microwave ovens, video games, …

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

components of e waste
COMPONENTS OF E-WASTE
  • Fe and steel
  • Non-ferrous metals (Pb, Cu, Al, Au, …)
  • Glass
  • Plastic
  • Electronic components (R, C, L, ICs…)
  • Others (rubber, wood, ceramics, …)

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

dangers of e waste
DANGERS OF E-WASTE

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

effects of e waste toxins
EFFECTS OF E-WASTE TOXINS

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

effects of e waste toxins1
EFFECTS OF E-WASTE TOXINS

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

effects of e waste toxins2
EFFECTS OF E-WASTE TOXINS

Effects on soil:

  • Toxic leachates: Hg, Cd, Pb, P
  • Uncontrolled fire risk →toxic fumes
  • Biologically non-degradable: Cd, HG, BFR

There are also hazardous effects on livestock, ecology, etc.

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

why is e waste a problem
WHY IS E-WASTE A PROBLEM?

E-Waste poses a serious threat to human health and the environment.

Increasing

human

health risks

More

Hazardous

materials

in landfills

Increased

electronics

purchase

More

E-Waste

Rapid

technological

changes

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

stakeholders in e waste management
STAKEHOLDERS IN E-WASTE MANAGEMENT

Almost everyone is a stakeholder

Manufacturers

Recyclers

Suppliers

E-Waste

Resellers

End-users

Aggregators

Collectors

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

effects of e waste toxins3
EFFECTS OF E-WASTE TOXINS

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

e waste management international initiatives
E-WASTE MANAGEMENT (INTERNATIONAL INITIATIVES)
  • Basel Convention
  • G8 3Rs Initiative
  • StEP
  • GTZ
  • UNEP/DTIE (IETC)
  • GeSI
  • SECO

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

e waste management in nigera
E-WASTE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERA
  • No serious initiative to address the issue
  • Govt. organs expected to be responsible: NESREA, FEPA, NEMA, NASRDA, NCC …
  • Efforts made:
    • Establishment of institutional framework (FEPA, NESREA)
    • Sponsored intn’l conferences on E-Waste control
    • Latest: Environment Division of NSE

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

e waste management in nigera1
E-WASTE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERA

CHALLENGES:

  • Lack of legislation to control in-flow of used electronics products
  • Lack of awareness by public on inherent dangers of E-Waste
  • Lack of recycling facilities
  • Poor corporate responsibility by industry
  • Used electronics not contraband to Nigerian Customs Service

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

e waste management in nigera2
E-WASTE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERA

NSE INITIATIVES:

  • Environment Division of NSE organised a conference in November 2010 on Environmental Impact of Telecoms systems
  • Communiqué emphasized E-Waste problem
  • National Committee set on E-Waste up
  • Inaugural meeting held in June 2010

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

better options for your e waste
BETTER OPTIONS FOR YOUR E-WASTE
  • Increase in sales price to take care of Total Life Cycle Cost
  • Donation to schools, orphanage, charitable non-profit organisations
  • Auctioning
  • Sale to recyclers

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

benefits of recycling
BENEFITS OF RECYCLING
  • Metal recovery for future uses
  • Conservation of natural resources
  • Air and water pollution avoidance
  • Reduction in amount of greenhouse gas emissions via manufacturing of new products

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

recommendations
RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Legislation on safe disposal with assistance of governments
  • Accompanying sales of new consumer electronics through process fees
  • Encouraging genuine recyclers
  • Manufacturers to take item back at end-of-life with incentives

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

conclusion
CONCLUSION
  • E-Waste a ticking time bomb in developing countries, Nigeria inclusive
  • Nigeria, as a major consumer of both new and used electronics products, needs to take an urgent look at E-Waste management via
      • Legislation (legal framework)
      • Awareness creation at all levels of government

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011

slide24
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

Engr. Dr. Y. A. Adediran, FNSE NSE Ilorin Branch, 28/7/2011