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## URBAN STORMWATER DRAINAGE A typical gully pit

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**URBAN STORMWATER DRAINAGEDesign of urban stormwater drainage**involves • Hydrologic calculations of catchment flow rates • Hydraulic calculations of pit energy and friction losses, and pipe sizes**URBAN STORMWATER DRAINAGEHydraulic Design (continue)**• Friction slope Pipe slope • Allow 150 mm freeboard for USWL & DSWL • USWL - DSWL Losses • Losses = Friction + Pit energy losses • Calculate pipe size to satisfy above condition**If we completely fill in the**floodplain and develop every bit of space, this is what we get - Lincoln Creek in Milwaukee**after**before**Total annual precipitation**In WI = approx. 30 in no connection no reduction b a a/b**Red Cross**Headquarters In Madison**Natural Wetland**Detention Design**Hydrology**• Meteorology • Study of the atmosphere including weather and climate • Surface water hydrology • Flow and occurrence of water on the surface of the earth • Hydrogeology • Flow and occurrence of ground water**Engineering Uses of Surface Water Hydrology**• Average events (average annual rainfall, evaporation, infiltration...) • Expected average performance of a system • Potential water supply using reservoirs • Frequent extreme events (10 year flood, 10 year low flow) • Levees • Wastewater dilution • Rare extreme events (100 to PMF) • Dam failure • Power plant flooding Probable maximum flood**Flood Design Techniques**• Use stream flow records • Limited data • Can be used for high probability events • Use precipitation records • Use rain gauges rather than stream gauges • Determine flood magnitude based on precipitation, runoff, streamflow • Create a synthetic storm • Based on record of storms**Sources of Data**• Stream flows • tamab • Precipitation • tamab • National Weather Service • Global extreme events**Forecasting Stream Flows**• Natural processes - not easily predicted in a deterministic way • We cannot predict the monthly stream flow • We will use probability distributions instead of predictions 10 year daily average Seasonal trend with large variation**Choice of Return Periods: RISK!!!**• How do you choose an acceptable risk? • Crops • Parking lot • Water treatment plant • Nuclear power plant • Large dam • What about long term changes? • Global climate change • Development in the watershed • Construction of Levees Potential harm Acceptable risk**Design Flood Exceedance**• Example: what is the probability that a 100 year design flood is exceeded at least once in a 50-year project life (small dam design) • =______________________ Not (safe for 50 years) (p = probability of exceedance in one year) probability of safe performance for one year probability of safe performance for two years probability of safe performance for n years probability of exceedance in n years probability that 100 year flood exceeded at least once in 50 years**10 year flood**Empirical Estimation of 10 Year Flood Annual Peak Flow Record • Sort annual max discharge in decreasing order • Plot vs. Where N is the number of years in the record How often was data collected? 2 year flood**Extreme Events**• Suppose we can only accept a 1% chance of failure due to flooding in a 50 year project life. What is the return period for the design flood? • Given 50 year project life, 1% chance of failure requires the probability of exceedance to be _____ in one year • Extreme event! Return period of _____ years! 0.02% 5000**Extreme Events**• Low probability of failure requires the probability of failure in one year to be very very low • The design event has most likely not occurred in the historic record • Nuclear power plant on bank of river • Designed for flood with 100,000 year return period, but have observations for 100 years**Quantifying Extreme Events**• Use stream flow records to describe distribution including skewness and then extrapolate • Adjust gage station flows to project site based on watershed area • Use similar adjacent watersheds if stream flow data is unavailable for the project stream • Use rainfall data and apply a model to estimate stream flow • Use local rain gage data • Use global maximum precipitation • Estimate probable maximum precipitation for the site**Flood Design Process**• Create a synthetic storm • Estimate the infiltration, depression storage, and runoff • Estimate the stream flow We need models!**Methods to Predict Runoff**• Scientific (dynamic) hydrology • Based on physical principles • Mechanistic description • Difficult given all the local details • Engineering (empirical) hydrology • “Rational formula” • Soil-cover complex method • Many others**Engineering (Empirical) Hydrology**• Based on observations and experience • Overall description without attempt to describe details • Mostly concerned with various methods of estimating or predicting precipitation and streamflow**p. 359 in Chin**“Rational Formula” • Qp = CiA • QP = peak runoff • C is a dimensionless coefficient • C=f(land use, slope) • http://ceeserver.Cee.Cornell.Edu/mw24/cee332/scs_cn/runoff_coefficients.Htm • i = rainfall intensity [L/T] • A = drainage area [L2]**“Rational Formula” - Method to Choose Rainfall Intensity**• Intensity = f(storm duration) • Expectation of stream flow vs. Time during storm of constant intensity Q Qp Outflow point t Watershed divide tc**“Rational Formula” - Time of Concentration (Tc)**• Time required (after start of rainfall event) for most distant point in basin to begin contributing runoff to basin outlet • Tc affects the shape of the outflow hydrograph (flow record as a function of time)**Time of Concentration (Tc): Kirpich**• Tc = time of concentration [min] • L = “stream” or “flow path” length [ft] • h = elevation difference between basin ends [ft] Watch those units!**Time of Concentration (Tc): Hatheway**• Tc = time of concentration [min] • L = “stream” or “flow path” length [ft] • S = mean slope of the basin • N = Manning’s roughness coefficient (0.02 smooth to 0.8 grass overland)**“Rational Formula” - Review**• Estimate tc • Pick duration of storm = tc • Estimate point rainfall intensity based on synthetic storm • Convert point rainfall intensity to average area intensity • Estimate runoff coefficient based on land use Why is this the max flow?**“Rational Formula” - Fall Creek 10 Year Storm**• C 0.25 (moderately steep, grass-covered clayey soils, some development) • Qp = CiA • QP = 7300 ft3/s (200 m3/s) • Empirical 10 year flood is approximately 150 m3/s Runoff Coefficients**“Rational Method” Limitations**• Reasonable for small watersheds • The runoff coefficient is not constant during a storm • No ability to predict flow as a function of time (only peak flow) • Only applicable for storms with duration longer than the time of concentration < 80 ha**Flood Design Process (Review)**• Create a synthetic storm • Estimate infiltration and runoff • Soil-cover complex • Estimate the streamflow • “Rational method” • Hydrographs