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Molecular Genetics

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Molecular Genetics. http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/code.gif. INFORMATION CONTENT IN BITS I = X LOG 2 N FROM SHANNON WHERE X IS # CHARACTERS IN MESSAGE

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slide3

INFORMATION CONTENT

IN BITS

I = X LOG2N FROM SHANNON

WHERE X IS # CHARACTERS IN MESSAGE

N IS LETTERS IN ALPHABET, ASSUMING THEY ARE EQUALLY LIKELY (PRETTY GOOD ASSUMPTION FOR DNA BASES, NOT SO GOOD FOR AA)

slide4

VIRUSES HAVE VERY SMALL GENOMES

REPRODUCE ONLY IN HOTS CELL

CODE FOR COAT PROTEINS AND ENZMES NEEDED FOR VIRAL LIFE CYCLE

HIJECKS CELL METABOLISM AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS MACHINERY

slide6

CAPSOMERES

CAN BE SURROUNDED BY A MEMBRANOUS ENVELOPE (FLU)

slide11

Transposable elements and jumping genes

Simplest elements are insertion sequences (prokaryotes only). Contains a gene coding for an enzyme which moves the sequence and is flanked by inverted repeats

slide12

Inverted repeats allow the formation of stem-loop stuctures. Loops can be very large, containing whole genes! This is a common theme in nucleic acid processing- remember palindromes, tRNA, etc.

Two insertion sequences flaning a coding region make the whole region portable. We have evolved to evolve.

slide20

Carbon

Atomic mass ~12.1

Atomic number 6

Most versatile chemistry of any element

Sixth most abundant element in the universe

(see atomic number)