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Molecular Genetics PowerPoint Presentation
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Molecular Genetics

Molecular Genetics

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Molecular Genetics

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  1. Molecular Genetics Protein DNA Phenotype RNA Genome Gene The flow of information: 1. Storage 2. Replication 3. Gene Expression Transcription Translation

  2. Flow of Genetic Information

  3. Flow of Genetic Information

  4. Translation Cap Start of genetic message • Translation requires: • Messenger RNA (mRNA) • Transfer RNA (tRNA) • Ribosomes • ATP • Enzymes (translation factors) End Tail

  5. Translation • Transfer RNA (tRNA): • Molecular interpreter • Matches amino acids with codons in mRNA using anticodons Amino acid attachment site Anticodon

  6. Translation tRNA Structure

  7. Translation • Ribosomes: • Coordinate the functions of mRNA and tRNA • Made of two subunits • Contain ribosomal RNA (rRNA) tRNA binding sites P site A site Large subunit Small subunit

  8. Translation Initiator tRNA • Complex formation: • Ribosome • mRNA • Initiator tRNA • Translation factors mRNA Start codon

  9. Translation • Codon Recognition: • Another tRNA • Translation factors Initiator tRNA mRNA Anticodon Start codon

  10. Translation • Peptide Bond Formation:

  11. Translation • Translocation: New peptide bond mRNA movement

  12. Translation • Elongation:

  13. Codon recognition ELONGATION Stop codon Peptide bond formation Translocation

  14. Transcription Polypeptide Nucleus DNA mRNA RNA processing Termination mRNA Enzyme Elongation ATP Initiation of translation Amino acid attachment

  15. tRNA Charging

  16. Mutations • A mutation is any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. • Mutations can change the amino acids in a protein. • Mutations can involve: • Large regions of a chromosome • Just a single nucleotide pair Normal hemoglobin DNA Mutant hemoglobin DNA mRNA mRNA Sickle-cell hemoglobin Normal hemoglobin

  17. Mutations