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Headaches and viewing of 3-dimensional (3D) movies in theaters. Jaime Mirowsky , MS New York University School of Medicine Department of Environmental Medicine. Presenter Disclosures Jaime Mirowsky :. The following personal financial relationships with commercial interests

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Headaches and viewing of 3 dimensional 3d movies in theaters

Headaches and viewing of 3-dimensional (3D) movies in theaters

Jaime Mirowsky, MS

New York University School of Medicine

Department of Environmental Medicine


Presenter disclosures jaime mirowsky
Presenter Disclosures theatersJaime Mirowsky:

The following personal financial

relationships with commercial interests

relevant to this presentation existed

during the past 12 months:

No relationships to disclose


Introduction
Introduction theaters

  • 3D movies have existed since the 1950s

    • Health effects, such as visual fatigue associated with the viewing of 3D movies have been recognized, but epidemiologic studies have not described the frequency of this effect.

  • Emergence of 3D technology in recent years

    • Theaters, cameras, camcorders, phones, video games, TV.


Introduction1
Introduction theaters

  • 3D movies have existed since the 1950s

    • Health effects, such as visual fatigue associated with the viewing of 3D movies have been recognized, but epidemiologic studies have not described the frequency of this effect.

  • Emergence of 3D technology in recent years

    • Theaters, cameras, camcorders, phones, video games, TV.


How 3d images can cause health effects
How 3D images can cause health effects theaters

  • Blending of 2 images causes unnatural conflict between vergence and accommodation in the eyes

    • Vergence: movement of one’s eyes around vertical axes to focus on an object.

    • Accommodation: focusing on an object

    • Vergence and accommodation go hand in hand in normal vision, but 3D movies upset their usual relationship.

  • Health effects that have been noted include, but are not limited to, headaches, sore eyes, tiredness


How 3d images can cause health effects1
How 3D images can cause health effects theaters

  • Blending of 2 images causes unnatural conflict between vergence and accommodation in the eyes

    • Vergence: movement of one’s eyes around vertical axes to focus on an object.

    • Accommodation: focusing on an object

    • Vergence and accommodation go hand in hand in normal vision, but 3D movies upset their usual relationship.

  • Health effects that have been noted include, but are not limited to, headaches, sore eyes, tiredness


Past studies
Past studies… theaters

  • Increase in blinking frequency in 3D vs. 2D movies, closer distances to screen (Lee 2010)

    • n = 6

  • Headache elevated in 3D vs. 2D images (Kuze 2008)

    • n = 11

  • 3D images with motion increase headaches vs. no motion (Yano 2004)

    • n = 5


Limitations of past studies
Limitations of past studies theaters

  • Low sample numbers (n < 12)

  • Use of red/green glasses

    • Newer technology uses polarized glasses

  • LCD/HDTV screens

  • Length of time much less than movie

  • Used images rather than motion pictures


Objectives
Objectives theaters

  • To determine the frequency of headaches among viewers of 3D as compared to 2D movies in theater settings

  • To evaluate risk factors for adverse health effects of 3D movies and identify potential susceptible populations


3D movies and headaches theaters

Group 1:

2D vs. 3D movies

Group 2:

Effect of age

Group 3:

Vision problems

Institutional Review Board – exempt status

Create surveys - SurveyMonkey®

Distribute surveys – friends, colleagues, relatives

n = 66, 38

n = 140

n = 85

Analyze data – Exact methods used to calculate odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals odds using Egret for Windows. Exact logistic regression calculated using SAS 9.3.


Other considerations
Other considerations… theaters

  • Gender

  • Migraine susceptibility

  • Contacts, prescription glasses

  • Sitting location in theater

  • Food/drink consumed, alcohol use






Group 2 cont
Group 2 cont. movies

Multivariable analysis


Group 3 risk factors for headaches among 85 viewers of 3d movies
Group 3: risk factors for headaches among 85 viewers of 3D movies

* Gender was missing for 1 individual


Group 3 risk factors for headaches among 85 viewers of 3d movies1
Group 3: risk factors for headaches among 85 viewers of 3D movies

* Gender was missing for 1 individual


Conclusions
Conclusions movies

  • Headaches uncommon among 2D viewers vs. 3D viewers (4% vs. 14%, respectively)

  • Other risk factors could include viewers

    • < 40 years-old

    • Prior diagnosis of migraine

    • Eyeglasses + 3D glasses

    • Females

  • 12 – 17% of viewers of 3D movies reported headaches


Limitations
Limitations movies

  • Surveys not designed to combine results

    • Different age brackets

    • Different questions asked

  • Samples sizes still low

  • Age cutoff at 18 years-old

  • All movies grouped together


Future directions
Future directions movies

  • More comprehensive study with larger sample sizes

  • Animated vs. live-action movie

  • Technology differences (how projected, type of glasses worn)

  • Seating position

  • Survey administered directly after movie watched

  • Other studies using 3DTV, 3D video games, 3D camera/video cameras


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements movies

  • Dr. Michael Marmor

  • Group 1:

    • Xin Cheng

    • Brittany Garrett

    • Sean Quarry

    • Michael Wajnrajch, MD

  • Group 2:

    • Jieying Jiang

    • Alexandra Munoz

    • June Kim

    • Julie Robinson

    • Eric Saunders

  • Group 3:

    • Colleen Sabella

    • AlyshaUrniasz

    • Joshua Vaughan

    • LitalYinon

    • Enhan Zhang

  • New York University Graduate School of Arts and Science


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