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    グローバル時代の英語教育. English Education in Globalized Age 国際言語文化センター 中村耕二 Koji Nakamura koji@konan-u.ac.jp http://www.kilc.konan-u.ac.jp/~koji/ . Ross ’ s Five Suggestion.

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    グローバル時代の英語教育

English Education in Globalized Age

国際言語文化センター

中村耕二

Koji Nakamura

koji@konan-u.ac.jp

http://www.kilc.konan-u.ac.jp/~koji/

ross s five suggestion
Ross’s Five Suggestion

We need to make a commitment to achieving a better balance in the coverage of the local and the global in our classrooms.

授業でのローカルとグローバルな内容の取り扱いにおいては、より良いバランスを持つように努力する必要がある。

1 explore the complexities of key concepts in global issues
1. Explore the complexities of key concepts in global issues.

Our global issues classes must deal with the fact that different cultures and different countries occupy radically different positions in the ‘global community’ and ‘interconnections’ in our world need to be explored so we can arrive at a more realistic conception of the various economic, political, and social inequalities that run through our ‘connected’ world.

(グローバル化し、相互関係のある世界にも経済的、政治的、社会的不平等が存在することの現実的な理解が必要)

Another way in which we need to make our global issues classes more realistic and better-balanced is to guard against overly simple and stereotypical presentations of both Japanese and non-a Japanese cultural practices. (Ross, 2000, p.161)

(日本と日本以外の文化的慣習が単純化されたり、固定観念的に表象されることへの警告)

2 emphasize process
2 Emphasize Processプロセス重視で参加型

We would do well to keep in mind how the Global Education Group in Nara puts it when it states that global issues education should be “a participative form of learning. It does not take the form of one sided listening to things whose conclusion is already known, but rather the participants themselves think out solutions as each situation arises.” (Ross, 2000, p.162)

GEP教育は参加型の学びであるべき。

学習者がすでに結論のあることを一方的に聞くのではなく、自らが状況に応じて解決策を考え出す

3 leave the deficit theory behind
3 Leave the ‘deficit theory’ behind

In order to do our jobs appropriately and efficiently, we need to have a better understanding of how global issues are covered in Japanese junior and senior high schools.

(日本の中学校、高等学校でグローバルな問題がいかに教えられているかを理解する必要がある。)

We may find that they are not covered as much as we would like or with the approaches that we ourselves are comfortable with, but getting a better idea of how much and what kind of exposure students have gotten to global issues before we meet them is essential if we are to improve our teaching. (Ross, 2000, p.163)

GIEを扱う英語の授業を改善するには、日本の学生のグローバル問題に関する背景知識を確認する必要性がある。

4 take issues of national identity seriously
4 Take issues of (national ) identity seriously

There is little doubt that most of us are living in increasingly globalized world. However, for most of us, our sense of identity is till strongly tied up with the source of the prime locality: our nationality.(我々がグローバル化した世界に生きていることは否定できないが、我々のアイデンティティはローカルな自分や国籍に深く拘束されている。)

学習者の自文化への誇りやアイデンティティと異文化を尊重する態度との心理的バランスを保つことが必要である。

As Bennet says, we need to be sure our learners can “achieve a psychological balance between cultural pride and identity on the one hand, and appreciation of cultures very different from their own on the other” (Bennet, 1991, p. 183)

5 turn over the floor to japanese voices
5 Turn over the floor to Japanese Voices

Exposing students to Japanese ‘voices’ speaking about the issues covered in class is essential. グローバルな問題についての日本人の声を聞く機会も大切

The above five ‘suggestions’ are meant to be the starting point in a reconceptualization of how we practice global issues education in Japan, and they are certainly not going to solve all the problems by themselves (Ross, 2000, p. 164).

以上の5つの提案は日本でのGIE教育をいかに実践するかを再考する出発点である。

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グローバル時代における外国語教育の意義

グローバル時代に外国語を学ぶことは、異文化を学びながらも、自国の言語文化を再確認して世界に発信するという相互作用でなければならない。

多言語・多文化に対する開かれた態度は世界の人々との共生をもたらし、同じ種としての人類の連帯感を育む。

日本文化の心を表象し、世界と対話する能力を育むことこそ、国際化の波に翻弄され、顔なきeconomic giant(経済巨人)と言われる日本に必要なことではなかろうか。(中村、2007)

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国際理解教育としての外国語教育

学習者が異文化、異民族を理解しようとする開かれた態度を育み、グローバルな問題や平和・人権問題に対する意識を高揚すること。

学習者は進んで異文化を尊重する態度と共に現在世界で起こっていることを自分達の問題として捉え、地球市民として考える態度を育むこと。

この異文化に対する態度はより有効な異文化間コミュニケーション能力を育む出発点である。つまり、21世紀の人類共存に必要とされる国際対話能力 (global literacy)と自文化や国家を超える視野 (transcultural and transnational perspectives) を育むのである。 (中村 2007)

The present-day world is inescapably multicultural and multinational. Many of our most pressing problems require for their intelligent, cooperative solution a dialogue that brings together people from many different national and cultural and religious backgrounds (Nussbaum, 2003).

(Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education)

slide10
グローバル時代の英語教育

As language and culture are symbiotic, cultivating global literacy for a peaceful world is oneof the most urgent tasks for educators and researchers. For multicultural citizens of the world, in a more sustainable global village where borders play such a minor role, global awareness, respect for other cultures and communication skills, especially communicative competence in English as an International Language (EIL) will be more vital (Nakamura, 2002).

外国語教育は他者を理解し、自己や自文化を説明できる能力を開発し、異文化間コミュニケーションや国際理解に至る言語文化教育である。広義には、外国語教育は人類の共存のためのコミュニケーション能力を育む人間教育である。( 中村2007 )

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グローバル時代の英語教育

第一に、人間社会やグローバルな問題に関する資料や論文を多読し、自分の意見を、一貫性があり、まとまりのある英語で表現し、問題解決の方向で、エッセイにまとめること。

第二に、その書かれた英語を要約し、聴衆に説明したり、説得したりするためのパブリック・スピーチとしてまとめあげ、目標言語で自己表現する能力を育むこと。

最後に、英語運用能力を伸長するために、発表内容に関して学習者同士が質問し、議論するコミュニカテイブな学習環境を学習者と教師が共に創造すること。教師は常に学習者の援助者、観察者、指導者として意識しなければならない。このプロセスで教師自らが変革し、授業が変化し、学習者も変容する。(中村2007)

a learner centered communicative and interactive language classroom
A learner-centered Communicative and Interactive Language Classroom
global literacy a new paradigm for global issues education gie
Global Literacy: A New Paradigm for Global Issues Education (GIE)

Global literacyincludes cross-cultural competence and sensitivity with multicultural, transcultural and transnational perspectives.

多文化、超国家的な視野を有する異文化間調整能力

It also requires communicative competence in English as an International Language (EIL) for global dialogue in order to solve common human problems .

国際英語による国際対話能力

Also it develops cognitive, affective, social skills to reconcile from mutual strength and integrate seemingly opposing valueson a higher level for the purpose of equitable coexistence.

互いの文化を尊敬し、和解する能力

the voice from edward said at university of cairo in 2003
The Voice from Edward Saidat University of Cairo in 2003サイードの平和へのメッセージ

You cannot deal with others without profound knowledge of his or her culture, society and history.

他者や他民族の文化・社会・歴史への深い理解

Force never works, because you can never destroys the will of people and the power of people.

 力や軍事力で人民の意志や力を破壊できない。

Idea is equality, coexistence and sustainable life.

真の思想は平等・共存・何世代も続く未来の生活への保障

The present is our battle ground and knowledge is our main weapons.現在こそ戦場であり、知識こそ武器 

(Edward Said:2003) (VTR)

perspectives on orientalism by edward said in efl education in japan
Perspectives on Orientalism by Edward Said in EFL Education in Japan.サイードのオリエンタリズム

Orientalism is Western centered-conceptions of the Orient. Occidentalism is Eastern-centered views of the West and Europe. Said (1976) defines Orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient.

Said criticized this Western-centered assumption which he named Orientalism. His contention in Orientalism is that the Western-centered concept of the Orient and the inalienable sense of Western superiority over it which are logically tied up with Darwinian or Hegelian progressivism, colonialism, Euro-centered orientation and ethnocentrism, have been manifestly and subconsciously represented in all the texts on the Orient and Africa by Western intellectuals (Nakamura 2003).

global literacy the component of global literacy
Global literacy:The component of global literacy

1 Cultural literacy (basic cultural competence and skills to live in one’s home culture)

自文化で生きる知識・能力

2 Cross-cultural literacy (competence and skills to adjust between one’s home culture and a target culture)異文化調整能力

3Multi-cultural literacy (cultural sensitivity and skills to live responsibly in cultural diversity, reconciling cultural differences and integrating opposing cultural values in a multicultural and

interdependent world)多文化共存社会や相互依存の世界において、お互いの文化の差異を乗り越え、和解できる能力

cultural literacy japanese habits of the hearts
Cultural literacyJapanese Habits of the Hearts 日本人の心の習慣

1 集団の和と家族主義の労働倫理  (Consistency)

  和を以て貴しと為す(聖徳太子 憲法17条第1条)

Group Harmony and Family-oriented Work Ethic

2 和魂洋才Wa Kon You Sai (Consistency)

3 本音と建前Formality (Word) and Actual Intension

4 もののあわれ・無常観(Consistency)

View of life as something transient and empty

5仏教と神道の共存(Consistency)

The coexistence of Buddhism and Shintoism

6武士道 Japanese Chivalry (Bushido) (Consistency)

7 平和主義 Japanese Pacifism except (1894-1945)

(Changes)

japanese cultural literacy mono no aware
Japanese Cultural literacy自文化の真髄、心、基本的知識もののあはれ Mono no Aware

人生の機微やはかなさなどに触れたときに感じるしみじみとした情趣

無常観 (Mujoukan )と もののあはれ

A view of life as something transient and empty. The idea that everything is uncertain, transient and mortal makes us more sensitive to the wonder of life and beauty of nature in each moment.

japanese chivalry bushido the seven moral code
武士道 Japanese Chivalry (Bushido) The seven Moral Code

Bushido is based on the harmony of Zen Buddhism and Shintoism, which emphasizes loyalty, respect for ancestor, filial piety and 惻隠の情(Consideration for enemies and the weak).

Rectitude 義

Respect 尊敬

Courage 勇 

Benevolence仁

Honor   名誉

Honesty  誠

Loyalty   忠

Sword and Chrysanthemum 1946 by Ruth Benedict

Bushido, The Soul of Japan 1900 by Inazo Nitobe

1931 45
アジア・太平洋戦争(1931-45)、日本の敗戦、占領軍、サンフランシスコ講和条約、日本の独立と日米安保体制と基地アジア・太平洋戦争(1931-45)、日本の敗戦、占領軍、サンフランシスコ講和条約、日本の独立と日米安保体制と基地
what has made japan what she is
What has made Japan what she is?日本の近代化と戦後復興の因果関係
global literacy the component of global literacy1
Global literacyThe component of global literacy

4 Delicate balance of one’s personal, cultural, national and global identifications and roles

(competence to accept and balance pluralistic/multiple identities)個人的、文化的、国民的、地球市民的アイデンテイテイの調和

5 Communicative competence in EIL for global communication (communication skills to create a peaceful and equitable symbiosis)

平和で平等な共生社会を実現するための国際対話能力

the three important factors of national identities
The three important factors of national Identities

British Students of Leeds University, Yorkshire, UK (46) 英国の大学生

1. English language (52.2%) (n=24)        英語

2. Cultural heritage (39.1%) (n=18)       文化遺産

3. History (37.0%) (n=17) 歴史

4.Liberal democracy (32.6%) (n=15)       自由な民主主義

5. Ethnic diversity (28.3%) (n=13)        多文化主義

German Students of Bochum University, Germany (46) ドイツの大学生

1. History (61.2%) (n=30)        歴史

2.Liberal democracy (51.0%) (n=25)        自由な民主主義

3. Human rights (44.9%) (n=22)        人権

4. German language (40.8%) (n=20) ドイツ語

5. Cultural heritage (30.6%) (n=15)

American Students of University of Hawaii (30)  アメリカの大学生

1 American English (80.0%)(n=16)     英語 

2 Cultural Heritage (55.0%)(n=11)        文化遺産

3 History (30.0%)(n=6)       歴史

4 Citizenship (30.0%)(n=6)        市民権

Japanese Students of Konan University in Kobe, Japan (216)日本の大学生

1. Japanese Language (66.2%)(n=143日本語

2. Human Rights (43.5%)(n=94)     人権

3.National Pride (31%)(n=31) 国民的誇り

4. Cultural Heritage(37.0%)(n=80)       文化遺産

5. History (27%)(n=27)        歴史

Thai graduate students of Srinakharinwirot Univ. in Bangkok, Thailand (40) タイの大学院生

1. Thai Language (70%)(n=27)     タイ語

2. Cultural Heritage (70%)(n=27)         文化遺産

3. King (62.5%)(n=25)        王様 

4. History (22.5%)(n=9)        歴史

factors of national pride among students in five nations
Factors of national pride among students in five nations

British students of University of Leeds, UK

multiculturalism(76.09%) (n=35)多文化主義

liberal democracy(47.83%) (n=22)自由な民主主義

English pound(32.61%) (n=15)英国通貨ポンド

Social Welfare(23.9%) (n=11)社会保障

German students of Bochum University, Germany

Social Welfare(67.47%) (n=33) 社会福祉

Liberal Democracy(61.22%) (n=30)自由な民主主義

Multiculturalism (55.1%) (n=27)多文化主義

American Students of University of Hawaii, USA

Multiculturalism (65.0%)(n=13) 多文化主義

Political Influence (55.0%)(n=11) 国際政治の影響

Liberal Democracy (40.0%)(n= 8)自由な民主主義

Japanese Students of Konan University, Kobe Japan

Science and technology (62.0%)(n=134)科学技術

      Business Companies(50.9%)(n=110) 日本企業

Economic performance(42.6%) (n=92)経済力

Liberal Democracy(37.3%)(n=80)   自由な民主主義

Thai graduate students of Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok Thailand

King and Royal Family (87.5%)(n=35) 王様と皇室

Religion (Buddhism) (52.5%)(n=21)宗教(仏教)

Multiculturalism (38%)(n=17)多文化主義 

Love for others (38%)(n=17)他人への愛

the component of global literacy
The component ofglobal literacy

6 Awareness as a global citizen to participate in solving global and human problems

(awareness of global village concern for equitable participation and problem-solving competence as a new reframing global concept) 、人類共通・地球規模の問題に関して、その解決のプロセスに共同参加する地球市民としての意識

7 A Strong desire to create a peaceful and sustainable society for the purpose of well-being.平和で持続可能な社会を形成したいと願う強い信念と渇望

civil wars refugees poverty hunger child labor and aids are all linked with each other
地域紛争・飢餓・難民・貧困・児童労働・AIDSの連鎖Civil Wars, Refugees, Poverty, Hunger, Child Labor and AIDS are all linked with each other.
issues of cultures in globalisation
ISSUES OF CULTURES IN GLOBALISATION

The process of globalization needs to carefully respond to the issue of culture for the purpose of a multicultural and equitable coexistence. In many multinational companies, understanding culture is more important than understanding technology. Being ahead of the competitor in terms of cultural understanding is increasingly more important (Nakamura , 2002).

Culture is the way people approach and resolve dilemmas. Culture is a dynamic process of solving human problems, and these problems come to us as dilemmas. "Dilemma" comes from the Greek

word meaning "two propositions" (Trompenaars, 1998).

global literacy a new paradigm for eil education
GLOBAL LITERACY: A NEW PARADIGM FOR EIL EDUCATION

Multicultural and trans-cultural perspectives, respecting each cultural identity would be more vital in a true sense of globalization, which should be primarily cultivated as a kernel of global literacy through language and culture education. There must be several basic attitudes to be cultivated as a new paradigm of EIL educators.

First of all, EIL educators should be very aware of the historical background of how English has become a lingua franca in many parts of the world.

Secondly, we should clarify the true meaning of globalization in intercultural and multicultural context with clear understanding of the causes and effects of Orientalism and Occidentalism.

Thirdly we should plant seeds of global literacy deep in students’ habits of their hearts and behaviors. Global literacy includes cross-cultural competence/sensitivity with multicultural, trans-cultural and transnational perspectives. It also develops cognitive, affective and social skills to reconcile from one’s own strength and integrate seemingly opposing values on a higher level for the purpose of equitable coexistence on this fragile earth. Also, it requires communicative competence in EIL for global and peaceful dialogue in order to share and solve human problems with people of the world.

five rationales why eil instructors should include global education in the syllabus
Five rationales why EIL instructors should include global education in the syllabus.

First, world problems, especially global issues affect every member of the human family on this planet. Second, globalisation has created a more interdependent context on the earth, namely what happens in one place affects others in different parts of the world. Third, the attitude of many young people in the "North" is that they need little knowledge about other cultures. Fourth, in the "South" young people tend to copy their peers in the North without giving a critical thought of the effects such a life style has on their families, communities and the earth. Fifth, teaching of intercultural tolerance towards diversity and respect of nature and human rights must start as early as possible at school. With these five rationales in the midst of today’s confused world, it seems self-evident that EFL instructors should be encouraged to play key roles in integrating controversial global issues into the EIL class as a part of global education (Nakamura, 2002).

slide43
まとめ大学教育としての外国語教育

大学教育には多くの目的がある。豊かな時代に育った日本の学生に対して、南北格差をはじめとするグローバルな問題に向き合うことも必要である。このような問題を学び、各自の考えを論理的に小論文にまとめ上げ、目標言語で発表する能力を養うことも大学教育の一部である。人類共通のグローバルな問題を学ぶことで眠っていた意識を覚醒し、問題の因果関係を分析する。そして、可能な解決策を考え、自分自身の意見を形成し、目標言語で自己表現する。これら一連のプロセスを通して、学習者が達成感を感じる外国語の授業の実践することが必要である。 (中村2007)

conclusion
Conclusion

The results from the students’ responses to the questionnaires and their

speeches on global issues reveal considerable satisfaction with the integration of global human issues with oral presentation in a learner-centered classroom.

The remarkable development of student’s skills in making persuasive public speeches with valid evidence and sharing their ideas with each other gave

students enjoyment and confidence in self-expression and self-representation

in the target language, especially English as an international language.

Also, students have developed and sharpened their own academic approaches

and problem-solving expertise through the process of web research and sharing necessary information and resources.

Consequently, as a result of this integrated EIL speech communication class, students Could cultivate their global literacy, creating a warm classroom

atmosphere, closer in atmosphere to a target language home rather than a

traditional teacher-directed language classroom in Japan.

We have reviewed a practical college-based experiment conducted to enhance

the awareness of global citizenship and human solidarity, and have argued that

self-expression with global perspectives in English as an international language

is a goal that should not be overlooked by EFL language educators.

The integration of global human issues into EFL speech communication class is

an invitation to be challenged and enlightened for all EFL instructors and their students (Nakamura, 2002).

reference
Reference

Banks,J. (2001). Cultural Diversity and Education: Foundation , Curriculum, and Teaching. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Nunan, David. (1991). Communicative Tasks and the Language Curriculum. TESOL Quarterly, 25 (2), 279-295.

Nunan David (1989) Designing Communicative Classroom. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.

Nussbaum, Martha. (200). Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education. Harvard University Press, Cambridge

Richards, J. C., and T. Rogers. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Ross, Paul (2006). Learning Vocabulary for University Entrance Exams: A Word Frequency Study. JILC. Vol.10, pp.41-54.

Ross, Paul (2005). L1 Writing Experiences and L2 Writing Instructions: University Entrance Examination in Japan. JILC. Vol.9, pp.41-56.

Ross, Paul (2004). The Language-Culture Connection in ELT: Theory and Practice (2004). JILC. Vol.8, pp.57-72.

slide46

Ross, Paul (2003). Learning from Our Students’ Previous L2 Writing Experiences: The English Composition Question on University Entrance Exams. JILC. Vol.7, pp.69-86.

Ross, Paul (2002). L1 Influences on Japanese Students’ L2 Writing. JILC. Vol. 6, pp.33-47 Ross, Paul (2001). Dictionaries and the Language Learner: An Action Research Project (2001). JILC. Vol.5, pp 51-65.

Ross, Paul (2000). Towards Improving our Understanding of Stereotyping. JILC. Vol.4, pp.57-6

Ross, Paul. (2000). Stereotypes: Letting Students Speak of and for Themselves KELT. Vol. 15, pp167-180.

Ross, Paul. (2000). Local Perspectives in Global Issues Education. KELT. Vol. 15, pp151-166.

Ross, Paul (1999).‘Literary Language’ and the Language Classroom. JILC. Vol.3, pp.64-84.

Ross, Paul (1998). Communicative Language Teaching: A Reappraisal. JILC. Vol.2, pp.35-47.

reference1
Reference

Nakamura, Koji (2008). International Education for Peace for Student Teachers in Japan: Promoting Cultures of Peace, Transforming Education for Peace, Information Age Publishing, New York. pp 113-128.

Nakamura, Koji (2008). International Education for Integrated Studies Course as a New Curriculum for Teaching Profession in a Japanese University The Journal of the Institute for Language and Culture, Konan University. Vol.12. pp. 1-21

Nakamura, Koji (2008). Incorporating Communicative Task-based Instruction into a Student Teacher Training Program at a Japanese University, The Journal of the Center for Teaching Profession, Konan University. Vol. 2. pp.1-17. (In Print)

Nakamura, Koji (2007). English Education in Globalized Age- Content-based Process Writing for Oral Presentation, Eihosha. Tokyo.

Nakamura, Koji (2006). The compatibility of British Identities with European Citizenship: Qualitative and Quantitative Research. Identity, Education and Citizenship-Multiple Interrelations. (Ed) by Jonas Sprogoe & Thyge Winther-Jensen. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. pp. 65-90

reference2
Reference

Nakamura, Koji (2006). International Education for Peace in Higher Education – Promoting Culture of Peace in Japan. The Journal of the Institute for Language and Culture, 2006, Vol.10. pp. 1-27.

Nakamura. (2005) Creating a Learner-centered Communicative Classroom for Student Teachers, The Journal of the Institute for Language and Culture, Vol. 9. pp. 1-20

Nakamura, K. (2004). Fostering Global Literacy among Japanese University Students through Global Citizenship Education. The Journal of the Institute for Language and Culture, Konan University. 8, 1-29.

Nakamura, K. (2002). Developing Global Literacy through English as an International Language (EIL) Education in Japan. International Education Journal Vol.3, No.5, 2002. WCCES Commission 6 pp.63-74.