Relative clauses
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Relative Clauses. Stage 15. Study the following examples: ancilla urnam portabat . The slave-girl was carrying the jug. ancilla , quae post Salvium ambulabat , urnam portabat . The slave-girl, who was walking behind Salvius , was carrying the jug. What is a Relative Pronoun?.

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Relative clauses

  • Study the following examples:

    ancillaurnamportabat.

    The slave-girl was carrying the jug.

    ancilla, quae post Salviumambulabat, urnamportabat.

    The slave-girl, who was walking behind Salvius, was carrying the jug.


What is a relative pronoun
What is a Relative Pronoun?

  • A word such as who or which

  • Begins a relative clause

  • Refers to a noun earlier in the sentence

  • Acts as a noun


What is a relative clause
What is a Relative Clause?

  • Subordinate clause dependent on the main clause

  • Gives more information about a noun


Forms
Forms

Singular


Forms1
Forms

Plural


Relative clauses

B. Relative pronouns have antecedents – words that they refer back to and agree with. For example:

vilicus, qui cum praecursoribusequitabat, ad Salviumrediit.

The farm manager, who was riding with the forerunners, returned to Salvius.

propeiuveneseratplaustrum, quod totamviamclaudebat.

Near the young men was a wagon, which was blocking the whole road.

In the first examples, the relative pronoun is

qui

and it refers back to

vilicus,

which is its antecedent. In the second example the relative pronoun is

quod and its antecedent is

plaustrum.


Relative clauses
Examples – underline the relative pronoun, draw an arrow back to the antecedent, and translate the sentence.

1. rex, qui sceptrumtenebat, in atriosedebat.

rex, quisceptrumtenebat, in atriosedebat.

The king, who was holding the scepter, was sitting in the atrium.


Relative clauses

2. back to the antecedent, and translate the sentencevinum, quod Salviusbibebat, erat optimum.

vinum, quodSalviusbibebat, erat optimum.

The wine, which Salvius was drinking, was the best.


Relative clauses

3. back to the antecedent, and translate the sentenceancillae, quae dominumtimebant, e villāfestinaverunt.

ancillae, quaedominumtimebant, e villāfestinaverunt.

The slave-girls, who were fearing the master, hurried out of the house.


Relative clauses

4. back to the antecedent, and translate the sentencecanis, quemBregansducebat, ferocissimuserat.

canis, quemBregansducebat, ferocissimuserat.

The dog, whom (which) Bregans was leading, was very fierce.


Relative clauses

5. in back to the antecedent, and translate the sentenceviāerant multi Britanni, qui Romanosimpediebant.

in viāerant multi Britanni, quiRomanosimpediebant.

Many Britons, who were delaying the Romans, were in the street.


Relative clauses

6. back to the antecedent, and translate the sentencecena, quam Volubilisparabat, eratsplendida.

cena, quamVolubilisparabat, eratsplendida.

The dinner, which Volubilis was preparing, was splendid.