Neuse river prototype observatory
1 / 38

Neuse River Prototype Observatory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Neuse River Prototype Observatory. Jay Famiglietti for the Neuse Prototype Design Team Logan, Utah August 24, 2004. Neuse Prototype Team. · Dr. Ken Reckhow, UNC-WRRI (water quality); Team Leader · Dr. Chris Duffy, Penn State (hydroclimatology/sat-unsat)

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Neuse River Prototype Observatory' - drake

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Neuse river prototype observatory

Neuse River Prototype Observatory

Jay Famiglietti for the

Neuse Prototype Design Team

Logan, Utah

August 24, 2004

Neuse prototype team
Neuse Prototype Team

·Dr. Ken Reckhow, UNC-WRRI (water quality); Team Leader

·Dr. Chris Duffy, Penn State (hydroclimatology/sat-unsat)

·Dr. Jay Famiglietti, UC-Irvine (atmosphere-land interactions)

·Dr. David Genereux, NC State (groundwater-surface-water interaction)

·Dr. John Helly, UC San Diego (information systems)

·Dr. Witold Krajewski, Iowa (hydrometeorology)

·Dr. Dianne McKnight, Colorado-Boulder (biogeochemistry)

·Dr. Fred Ogden, Connecticut (floods/geomorphology)

·Dr. Bridget Scanlon, TBEG (infiltration/vadose zone hydrology)

·Dr. Len Shabman, RFF (economics/social science)


  • Central component of HydroView – a network of hydrologic observatories

  • Each observatory will be a drainage basin of approximately 10,000 sq. km.

  • HOs will result in new understanding and theory of hydrologic and related processes as well as an empirical base to test hypotheses.

Hos are to improve predictive understanding in five science topics
HOs are to Improve Predictive Understanding in Five Science Topics:

  • Linking hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles

  • Sustainability of water resources

  • Hydrologic and ecosystem interactions

  • Hydrologic extremes

  • Fate and transport of chemical and biological contaminants

Each of the science topics can be addressed by three cross cutting themes
Each of the Science Topics can be addressed by Three Cross-Cutting Themes:

  • Forcing, feedbacks, and coupling

  • Scaling

  • Prediction and limits to predictability

Four basic properties of a catchment
Four Basic Properties of a Catchment

  • Mass in each “store”

    Water, sediment, nutrients, contaminants

  • Residence time within stores

  • Fluxes between stores

  • Flowpaths among stores

Conceptual framework of ho watershed
Conceptual framework of HO watershed:

Spatially distributed set of stores, fluxes, sources and sinks of water and its constituents (sediment, nutrients, OM, contaminants) organized within a network of hydrologic flowpaths including:

  • Land surface (land cover, soils)

  • Surface drainage system (natural/engineered)

  • Subsurface to include surficial and deep aquifers

  • Atmospheric boundary layer

Core data
Core Data

  • Monitoring data

  • Four basic properties

  • Conceptual model for scaling

Neuse ho prototype design
Neuse HO Prototype Design

  • Hydrology and Water Balance

  • Water Quality

  • Geomorphology

  • Social Sciences

To assess the feasibility of the HO concept

Within the nrb emphasis on water nitrogen and sediment within
Within the NRB emphasis on water, nitrogen and sediment within:

  • Topographically driven surface (hillslope) drainage paths,

  • Subsurface stores and flowpaths (vadose and phreatic),

  • Network of stream and river channel reaches, surface water bodies including lakes and estuary,

  • Interface flux between these stores, and between the stores and the atmosphere, and

  • Human society source/sink of water, carbon and nutrients to these stores and flowpaths

    • Agricultural irrigation, fertilization, feedlot (CAFO) operations, rapid rotation forestry

    • Domestic water supply and wastewater

Neuse river prototype observatory

Hypothesis: Framework can be differentiated into subcatchment hydrologic landscape typology describing geomorphic, land cover, climate template. e.g. Piedmont,/Coastal Plain, urban/agricultural, …

Backbone of sampling design includes three sets of coordinated nested measurement characterizing
Backbone of sampling design includes three sets of coordinated, nested measurement characterizing:

  • Channel network structure of discharge, solute flux and transformations, sediment mobilization and routing, at order of magnitude drainage areas

  • land surface sources/sinks of water, energy, nutrients and sediment, measured at a set of land-atmosphere (LA) instrumented sites along representative flowpaths of hydrologic landscapes contributing to the stream gauges, and

  • multi-resolution precipitation and ABL measurements with high resolution precipitation available for smaller, focal catchments

Neuse river prototype observatory

Upper Neuse subcatchment land use: coordinated, nested measurement characterizing:nested observational design

Currently 42 operational USGS SW gauges in Neuse to be augmented with additional gauges:

Small, medium and large catchments (e.g. 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000 km2) gauged in different hydrologic landscapes

Colocate within stream measurements of sediment/nutrients at the station or adjacent reaches

ETR arrays installed in riparian zone and adjacent hillslopes

Nested precipitation measurement network

Neuse river prototype observatory

Little Contentnea landscape flowpath positions

Precipitation measurement nested precipitation gauge doppler radar disdrometer network
Precipitation measurement: Nested precipitation gauge, doppler radar, disdrometer network

Example research questions
Example Research Questions doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • Is the relationship between rainfall and runoff changing in the Neuse watershed, and if so, where and by how much? What are the implications for future flooding and low flow under likely climate change scenarios?

  • How does river discharge per unit contributing area (Q/A) vary with spatial scale along the Neuse River, from headwaters to coast? What are the main controls on this variation (rainfall, soils, topography, point sources, land use and land cover) and do they change with location/scale?

  • What is the improvement in predictive performance (outside the calibration period) of watershed hydrologic/nutrient models when data on river/stream discharge at different scales across the full Neuse watershed is used in calibration?

Example research questions1
Example Research Questions doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • Precipitation variability in space and time depends on rainfall regime and intensity.

  • Precipitation exhibits multiscaling properties conditional on the generating mechanisms, above.

  • Remote sensing observations of rainfall introduce distorted view of the variability of precipitation.

  • Errors of radar-rainfall estimates depend on rainfall magnitude, regime, and are interdependent in space and time. The probability distribution of the errors is skewed.

A neuse ho should
A Neuse HO Should: doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • support PI research on linkages between biogeochemical cycles and the hydrologic cycle

  • collect data and carry out analyses designed to quantify hydrologic stores and fluxes of chemical species (complete budgets may require additional PI-driven research…)

Water quality measurements in a neuse ho
Water Quality Measurements in a Neuse HO doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • surface water (streams, rivers, couple of reservoirs, estuary) & groundwater (shallow unconfined and deep confined)

  • major ions, nutrients, carbon, metals, pH, DO, suspended solids, chlorophyll A/B/C & accessory pigments (reservoirs and estuary)

  • goal is to quantify hydrologic stores and fluxes of chemicals

Water quality measurements in a neuse ho cont
Water Quality Measurements in a Neuse HO (cont.) doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • measurements at different scales (spatial and temporal), some regular monitoring, some intensive shorter-term campaigns

  • nitrogen of particular interest, significant pollutant in Neuse (1.4 million people, 2 million hogs, agriculture, fish kills, etc.)

  • transport and cycling of N are important research topics, linked to hydrologic cycle

Nitrogen cycle diagram
Nitrogen Cycle Diagram doppler radar, disdrometer network

Example research questions2
Example Research Questions doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • What are the total hydrologic inputs of N to the Neuse estuary? What are the separate contributions of surface water and groundwater, and the different N species?

  • How does surface water N transport differ with scale, across the full Neuse watershed and in intermediate size watersheds with different combinations of geology, land use, and topography? How do “natural” transport processes and human effects aggregate and interact to control this variability?

Research questions cont
Research Questions (cont.) doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • How useful is information on N export from small relatively homogeneous watersheds in improving predictive understanding of N export from (and transport within) the full Neuse watershed?

  • How are groundwater concentrations of different N species, and transport of N from groundwater to surface water, related to groundwater age, past land use, and geology?

Ho would help pis interested in n hydrology linkages
HO Would Help PIs Interested in N-Hydrology Linkages doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • basic data (N concentrations, stores, fluxes) will be available, for surface water (including estuary) spanning range of watershed sizes and geology-land use-topography combinations, and for groundwater of different ages and geological materials, confined and unconfined, Piedmont and Coastal Plain

Ho would help pis interested in n hydrology linkages cont
HO Would Help PIs Interested in N-Hydrology Linkages (cont) doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • knowledge of hydrologic elements of budgets, PIs interested in closing budgets can focus efforts on other budget terms, or on refinement of hydrologic terms

  • data sets to support studies of scaling, e.g., how surface water transport differs with scale and why, how to best represent that in models

Ho would help pis interested in n hydrology linkages cont1
HO Would Help PIs Interested in N-Hydrology Linkages (cont) doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • long-term records will allow for study of change over years, analysis of response to forcings (climate change and hydrologic extremes, new regulations on N loading to estuary and groundwater pumping, population growth, land use change)

Remote sensing in the neuse ho
Remote sensing in the Neuse HO doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • Hydrologic Observatories provide unparalleled infrastructure to develop/test remote sensing estimates of water storage and flux quantities.

  • Orbital/airborne RS extensively used in the NW-HO to estimate surface state/flux variables as part of scaling strategies to the full watershed

  • RS in support of science questions and hypotheses and in development/testing of RS ability to estimate the critical state and flux variables

Major hydrologic variables estimated with rs
Major hydrologic variables estimated with RS doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • soil moisture space/time variability,

  • surface energy budget terms,

  • canopy cover, leaf area index and phenology,

  • flood inundation

  • water quality parameters

  • high resolution topographic and land use/land cover patterns and change

Key hydrologic science technical questions
Key hydrologic science/technical questions doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • How can we combine freq, lo res. imaging of veg cover with hi res, infreq imaging to infer spatial/ temporal detail of canopy phenology and cover?

  • Under what conditions can RS optical, NIR/thermal info be used to estimate ET or evaporative resistance and what are the effects of sensor resolution?

  • How well can active/passive microwave estimate soil moisture under different topo/veg conditions? Do hi res estimates of soil moisture from active systems aggregate to form soil moisture estimates comparable to lo res passive microwave system estimates?

Hydrologic rs science questions cont d
Hydrologic RS science questions – cont’d doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • What water quality parameters can be reliably estimated by hyperspectral remote sensing systems?

  • To what accuracy can high resolution lidar data be used to extract the full stream network along with contributing hillslope drainage flowpaths?

  • Can airborne lidar be used to study channel and floodplain geomorphic long term trends and transient response to major flood events?

Why involve the social sciences
Why Involve The Social Sciences doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • Observatories are not “experimental watersheds”

    • Human activities affect stores, flows and fluxes

    • Document individual and government land and water use choices

Characterizing human choices
Characterizing Human Choices doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • Amount, timing and location of water withdrawals from streams and aquifers

  • Amount, location and timing of water retuned to streams and aquifers

  • Chemical constituents added to the returned water

  • Distribution of impervious cover types (turf grass, forest, row crops, pasture and animal feedlots)

  • Management practices on the land in any cover type

Social sciences data
Social Sciences Data doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • Specific-watershed and observatory-wide sample surveys

    • Continuing activity

    • Questions modified over time

    • Different survey procedures (mail, telephone interviews and in person interviews)

  • Use the Data to Estimate Water and Land Uses at the Appropriate Scales

Summary doppler radar, disdrometer network

  • Neuse Prototype helps define HO

  • Identify critical obstacles

  • Provide guidance on science questions, integrated observing system to address them