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Transparency in Discovery:

Transparency in Discovery:

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Transparency in Discovery:

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  1. Transparency in Discovery: Issues and progress in the ecosystem of Index-based Discovery Marshall Breeding http://www.librarytechnology.org/ http://twitter.com/mbreeding April 7, 2014

  2. Description • Breeding, co-chair of the NISO Open Discovery Initiative, describes the general landscape of library resource discovery products, the trend toward web-scale, index-based services, and some of the issues that sparked this initiative to bring increased transparency and other improvements to the ecosystem involving libraries, content providers, and discovery service creators.

  3. ILS Data Online Catalog Search: Books, Journals, and Media at the Title Level Not in scope: Articles Book Chapters Digital objects Scope of Search Search Results

  4. Index-based Discovery ILS Data (2009- present) Digital Collections Search: Web Site Content Institutional Repositories Aggregated Content packages Search Results Consolidated Index Open Access … E-Journals CustomerProfile Usage-generatedData Reference Sources Pre-built harvesting and indexing

  5. Discovery Service Installations

  6. Discovery Concerns • Important space for libraries and publishers • Discovery brings value to library collections • Discovery brings uncertainty to publishers • Uneven participation diminishes impact • Ecosystem dominated by private agreements • Complexity and uncertainty poses barriers for participation

  7. Heterogeneous Representations • Content objects represented by • MARC Records for books and journal titles • Citation data for articles • Full text for articles • Full text for books • Abstracts and Indexing data • Controlled vocabularies, related terms, abstracts, selected index terms produced by subject experts • Other metadata or enrichment

  8. Discovery index issues • Indexing full-text enables keyword-based relevancy • Citations or structured metadata provide basic terms to support search & retrieval and faceted navigation • A&I terms provide access points, relevancy indicators that cannot be reproduced algorithmically • Important to understand what is indexed • Currency, dates covered, full-text or citation • Many other factors

  9. Library Perspective • Strategic investments in subscriptions • Strategic investments in Discovery Solutions to provide access to their collections • Expect comprehensive representation of resources in discovery indexes • Problem with access to resources not represented in index • Encourage all publishers to participate and to lower thresholds of technical involvement and clarify the business rules associated with involvement • Need to be able to evaluate the coverage and performance of competing index-based discovery products

  10. Collection Coverage? To work effectively, discovery services need to covercomprehensively and evenly the body of content represented in library collections What primary publishers participate? What secondary or A&I publishers participate? Is content indexed at the citation or full-text level? What are the restrictions for non-authenticated users? How can libraries understand the differences in coverage among competing services?

  11. Web-scale searchproblem ILS Data Digital Collections Search: Web Site Content Institutional Repositories Consolidated Index Aggregated Content packages Search Results … E-Journals Pre-built harvesting and indexing ??? Non Participating Content Sources Problem in how to deal with resources not provided to ingest into consolidated index

  12. Representation of A&I • Important to understand how a discovery service incorporates A&I resources • Does it receive content from the A&I provider directly and make use of value-added terminology • If not: citations or full-text indexing of some portion of the titles represented in the A&I product • NOT the same, and possibly misleading

  13. Evaluating the Coverage of Index-based Discovery Services Intense competition: how well the index covers the body of scholarly content stands as a key differentiator Difficult to evaluate based on numbers of items indexed alone. Important to ascertain how your library’s content packages are represented by the discovery service. Important to know what items are indexed by citation, which are full text, and how A&I content is handled

  14. Some Key Areas for Publishers • Expose content appropriately • Trust that access to material will be controlled consistent with subscription terms • “Fair” Linking • Materials not disadvantaged or underrepresented in library discovery implementations • Usage reporting

  15. Library Technology Reports The Current State of Library Resource Discovery Products: Context, Library Perspectives, and Vendor Positions In press for Publication January 2014

  16. LTR Components Vender questionnaire Library Survey Industry announcements Other articles and publications

  17. Library Discovery Survey Survey executed to gather data from libraries regarding their experiences with discovery services Responses received by 396 Libraries: 29 Countries represented, 252 responses from United States

  18. Overall Effectiveness

  19. Comprehensiveness: Academic Libraries

  20. Relevancy Effectiveness

  21. Objectivity in Discovery

  22. Objectivity in Discovery: Academics

  23. Example Product rating chart

  24. Open Discovery Initiative

  25. ODI context Facilitate a healthy ecosystem among discovery service providers, libraries and content providers

  26. ODI Pre-History • June 26, 2011: Exploratory meeting @ ALA Annual • July 2011: NISO expresses interest • Aug 7, 2011: Proposal drafted by participants submitted to NISO • Aug 2011: Proposal accepted by D2D • Vote of approval by NISO membership • Oct 2011: ODI launched • Feb 2012: ODI Workgroup Formed

  27. Organization • Reports in NISO through Document to Delivery topic committee (D2D) • Staff support from NISO through Nettie Lagace • Co-Chairs • Jenny Walker (Ex Libris) • Marshall Breeding (Library Consultant) • D2D Observers: Jeff Penka (OCLC) Lucy Harrison (CCLA)

  28. ODI Timeline

  29. Balance of Constituents Marshall Breeding, Vanderbilt UniversityJamene Brooks-Kieffer, Kansas State University Laura Morse, Harvard University Ken Varnum, University of Michigan Sara Brownmiller, University of Oregon Lucy Harrison, College Center for Library Automation (D2D liaison/observer) Michele Newberry Lettie Conrad, SAGE PublicationsRoger Schonfeld, ITHAKA/JSTOR/PorticoJeff Lang, Thomson Reuters Linda Beebe, American Psychological AssocAaron Wood, Alexander Street Press Jenny Walker, Ex Libris GroupJohn Law, Serials SolutionsMichael Gorrell, EBSCO Information Services David Lindahl, University of Rochester (XC) Jeff Penka, OCLC (D2D liaison/observer)

  30. ODI Project Goals: • Identify … needs and requirements of the three stakeholder groups in this area of work. • Create recommendations and tools to streamline the process by which information providers, discovery service providers, and librarians work together to better serve libraries and their users. • Provide effective means for librarians to assess the level of participation by information providers in discovery services, to evaluate the breadth and depth of content indexed and the degree to which this content is made available to the user.

  31. Specific deliverables • Standard vocabulary • NISO Recommended Practice: • Data format & transfer • Communicating content rights • Levels of indexing, content availability • Linking to content • Usage statistics • Evaluate compliance • Inform and Promote Adoption

  32. ODI Stakeholder Survey • Collected data from Sept 11 thru Oct 4, 2012 • Each subgroup developed questions pertinent to it area of concern

  33. Selected results • Libraries: do you use a discovery service? • Yes: 74%, Planning to soon: 17%, No: 5%, Don’t know: 4% • Smallest discoverable unit: • Component title: 9%, Article: 25%, Collective work record: 11%, All the above: 50% • Linking from A&I entry: 75 prefer linking to full text on original publisher’s server

  34. Content providers (74) • Contribute data: Yes-All: 44%, Some: 48%, No: 8% • Current data: 12%, Current + back files: 85 • Barriers to contributing: • IP concerns, technology, staff resources • Challenges in delivery: • Complicated formats: 15%, transmission of data: 18, allocation of personnel: 23%, can’t automate: 12%, None: 20%

  35. Issues surrounding A&I resources • Concern that A&I resources not be freely available to non authenticated users and only for subscribing institutions • How to “credit” A&I data that contributes to search results • Example: Index entry produced by enhancing full-text with A&I data • Preservation of the value added by A&I in the discovery ecosystem

  36. ODI Final Report • Issued for public Comment • Comment period closed November 18, 2013

  37. Report Topics • Introduction • In scope / out of scope • Terms and definitions • Evolution of Discovery • Related initiatives • Recommendations

  38. General Recommendations • Create oversight group • Conformance checklist for: • Discovery Service Providers • Content Providers

  39. Recommendations for Content Providers • Content providers should make items available to discovery service providers. • Basic: Citations: specific metadata elements • Enhanced: additional metadata + Full-text • Provide to Libraries: disclosure of participation in discovery services

  40. Recommendationsfor Discovery Service Creators • Disclosure of content indexed • Specific metadata fields • Fair / non-biased linking • Mechanisms for libraries to choose versions preferred for linking • Annual statement regarding neutrality of linking or relevance • Provide links to A&I services when applicable • Usage statistics to Publishers

  41. Current work Next Steps • Finalize document based on comments from ODI members • Submit for final approval by NISO D2D • Hopefully finished by the end of April 2014

  42. Connect with ODI • ODI Project website:http://www.niso.org/workrooms/odi/ • Interest group mailing list:http://www.niso.org/lists/opendiscovery/ • Email ODI:odi@niso.org

  43. Discovery Service Trends • Progress in cooperation between content providers and discovery • ProQuest announces deals with OCLC and Ex Libris • Technical development of discovery services continues • Improved methods for relevancy and tools for exploring library resources • Convergence of Discovery with new Library Services Platforms

  44. Convergence • Discovery and Management solutions will increasingly be implemented as matched sets • Ex Libris: Primo / Alma • Serials Solutions: Summon / Intota • OCLC: WorldCat Local / WorldShare Platform • Except: Kuali OLE, EBSCO Discovery Service • Both depend on an ecosystem of interrelated knowledge bases • API’s exposed to mix and match, but efficiencies and synergies are lost

  45. Questions?